#1 Full form of AI
The full form of AI is Artificial intelligence. It is a branch of science that aims to create intelligent machines. It has become an integral part of the technology industry. Research in artificial intelligence is highly technical and specialized. Among the central problems of artificial intelligence is computer programming for certain functions, such as:
- to learn
- Ability to manipulate and move objects.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is the simulation of human intelligence processes through machines, especially computer systems. These processes include learning and acquiring information and rules for handling information, thinking about the use of rules to draw approximate or unambiguous conclusions and self-correction. Special applications of AI include expert systems, voice recognition, and artificial vision.
AI can be classified as weak or strong.
It is also known as narrow AI. It is actually an AI system designed and trained for a specific task. Weak artificial intelligence incorporates a system designed to perform a particular job. Weak artificial intelligence systems include video games such as the chess example above and personal assistants such as Amazon’s Alexa and Apple’s Siri. You ask the assistant a question, he answers it for you.
It is also known as artificial general intelligence. Strong artificial intelligence systems are systems that carry out tasks considered to be human-like. These tend to be more complicated and complex systems. They are programmed to handle situations in which they may be required to solve a problem without a person intervening. These types of systems can be found in applications such as cars that drive on their own or in hospital operating rooms.
Philosophy of artificial intelligence
While the power of computer systems explodes, the curiosity of the human being, leads him to ask himself: “Can a machine think and behave as humans do?”. Thus, the development of the AI began with the intention of creating similar intelligence in machines that we found. and high respect in humans.
Objectives of the AI
- To create expert systems: systems that show intelligent behavior, learn, demonstrate, explain and advise their users.
- Implement human intelligence in machines: create systems that understand, think, learn and behave like human beings.
What does it contribute to AI?
Artificial intelligence is a technology and science which is based on disciplines such as Computer Science, Biology, Psychology, Linguistics, Mathematics and Engineering. An important impetus for AI is the development of computer functions associated with human intelligence, such as reasoning, learning, and problem-solving. Outside of the following areas, one or several areas can contribute to building an intelligent system.
What is the AI technique?
In the real world, knowledge has some unwelcome properties:
- Its volume is enormous, close to the unimaginable.
- It is not well organized or formatted.
- Keep changing constantly.
The AI technique is a way to organize and use knowledge efficiently so that:
- It must be perceptible by the people who provide it.
- It must be easily modifiable to correct errors.
- It should be useful in many situations, even if it is incomplete or inaccurate.
AI techniques raise the speed of execution of the complex program with which it is equipped.
A brief modern history of AI.
The modern history of AI begins with the development of electronic computers of stored programs.
1969; Scientists at the Stanford Research Institute developed Shakey, a robot, equipped with locomotion, perception, and problem-solving.
1979; The first autonomous computer controlled vehicle, Stanford Cart, was built.
1985; Harold Cohen created and demonstrated Aaron, the drawing program.
1990; Important advances in all areas of AI:
- Significant demonstrations in machine learning.
- Reasoning based on cases
- Multi-agent planning
- Data mining, Web Crawler
- Understanding of natural language and translation.
- Vision, Virtual Reality.
1997; The Deep Blue Chess program surpasses the then world chess champion, Garry Kasparov.
2000; Interactive robot pets are commercially available. MIT shows Kismet, a robot with a face that expresses emotions. The Nomad robot explores remote regions of Antarctica and locates meteorites.
Types of artificial intelligence
We can divide the AI into four types, from the existing AI systems to the most sensitive systems that do not yet exist. Its categories are the following:
Type 1: Reactive machines. One example is Deep Blue, the IBM chess program that beat Garry Kasparov in the 1990s. Deep Blue can identify and make predictions on the chessboard, but it has no memory and cannot use past experiences for information future Analyze the possible movements, the opponents, and select the most strategic movement.
Type 2: Limited memory. These artificial intelligence systems can use past experience to make future decisions. Some of the decision-making functions while driving are designed in this way. The observations inform about the actions that take place in the not too distant future, such as B. a lane change in a car. These observations are not stored permanently.
Type 3: Theory of Mind. This refers to the understanding and psychology that others have their own beliefs, desires, and intentions that affect the choices they make. This type of artificial intelligence does not exist yet.
Type 4: Self-knowledge In this category, AI systems have a feeling for themselves, they have consciousness. Self-assured machines understand their current state and can deduce what others are feeling based on information. This type of AI does not exist yet.
Examples of AI technology
AI is involved in a variety of different technology types. Here are seven examples.
Automation: What causes a system or process to work automatically? For example, robotic process automation (RPA) can be programmed to perform repetitive high-volume tasks normally performed by humans. RPA differs from IT automation in that it can adapt to changing circumstances.
- Machine Learning: The science of getting a computer to work without programming. Unlearning is a subset of machine learning that can be considered in very simple terms as automation of predictive analytics. There are three types of machine learning algorithms:
- Monitored Learning: Records are labeled so patterns can be recognized and used to label new records
- Unattended learning: The records are not labeled and sorted by similarities or differences
- Reinforcement learning: The data sets are not labeled, but after performing an action or multiple actions, the AI system receives comments.
- Artificial Vision: The Science of Making Computers See. This technology captures and analyzes visual information using a camera, analog-to-digital conversion, and digital signal processing. It is often compared to human vision, but the artificial vision is not restricted by biology and can be programmed to look through the walls, for example. It is used in a variety of applications, from the identification of signatures to the analysis of medical images. Artificial vision, which focuses on machine vision, is often combined with artificial vision.
- Natural language processing (NLP): It is a processing of human and non-computer language by a computer program. One of the oldest and best-known examples of NLP is spam detection, which analyzes the subject line and text of an email and determines if it is garbage. NLP tasks based on machine learning include text translation, emotion analysis, and speech recognition.
- Robotics: An engineering division focused on the design and manufacture of robots. Robots are often used to perform tasks that are difficult to perform or that people perform in a uniform manner. They are used in assembly lines for automobile production or by NASA to move large objects in space. The researchers also use machine learning to build robots that can interact in social environments.
- Auto-driving cars: Use a combination of artificial vision, image recognition, and depth learning to develop automated skills to drive a vehicle on a particular lane and avoid unexpected obstacles, such as pedestrians.
- Recognition: Human perception is like a set of input devices in a computer. The visual data hits the human retina and then flows through the optic nerve to the brain. The sound waves hit the outer ear and then the middle ear before the inner ear begins the process of neuronal coding. By touching, smelling and tasting, external stimuli are transformed into internal neurological activities. And our memory serves as a database in which we can reference, identify and use this sensory information.
WHY THE RECENT INTEREST IN AI’S SECURITY?
Because AI has the potential to become more intelligent than any human, we do not have a sure way to predict how it will behave. We cannot use the technological developments of the past as a basis, because we have never created anything that has the ability to, intelligently or unconsciously, overcome us. The best example of what we could face is our own evolution. People now control the planet, not because we are the strongest, the fastest or the biggest, but because we are the smartest.
Advantages of Artificial Intelligence:
Artificial intelligence is complex in nature. It uses a very complicated mixture of computer science, mathematics, and other complex sciences. Complex programming helps these machines replicate the cognitive abilities of human beings.
- Error reduction:
Artificial intelligence helps us reduce error and the possibility of achieving precision with a greater degree of precision is a possibility. It is applied in various studies such as space exploration.
Intelligent robots feed on information and are sent to explore space. As they are machines with metal bodies, they are more resistant and have a greater capacity to withstand the space and the hostile atmosphere.
- Difficult exploration:
Artificial intelligence and the science of robotics can be used in mining and other fuel exploration processes. Not only that, these complex machines can be used to explore the ocean floor and, therefore, overcome human limitations.
Due to the programming of the robots, they can perform more laborious and difficult work with greater responsibility. Also, they do not wear easily.
- Daily application:
Computed methods for automated reasoning, learning and perception have become a common phenomenon in our daily lives. We have our lady Siri or Cortana to help us. We are also on the road for long trips and trips with the help of GPS. In public services, we find that they can predict what we are going to write and correct human errors in spelling.
Artificial intelligence is widely used by financial institutions and banking institutions to organize and manage data. Fraud detection uses artificial intelligence in a system based on smart cards.
- Digital assistants:
For saving the need for human resources, highly advanced organizations use “avatars,” which are replicas or digital assistants that can actually interact with users. For artificial thinkers, emotions get in the way of rational thinking and are not a distraction at all. The total absence of the emotional side makes the robots think logically and make the right decisions of the program.
- Repetitive works:
Repetitive works that are monotonous in nature can be carried out with the help of the intelligence of the machine. Machines think faster than humans and can be assigned to multiple tasks. The intelligence of the machine can be used to perform dangerous tasks. Its parameters, unlike humans, can be adjusted. Its speed and time are only parameters based on the calculation.
We can consider that games are the most common use of the benefits of artificial intelligence.
- Medical applications:
In the medical field too, we will find the wide application of AI. Doctors evaluate patients and their health risks with the help of the artificial intelligence of the machine. It educates them about the adverse effects of medicines.
Medical professionals are trained with artificial surgery simulators which are very important in the medical field. Find a great application in the detection and monitoring of neurological disorders, since it can simulate brain functions.
Robotics is often used to help mental health patients get out of depression and stay active. A popular application of artificial intelligence is radiosurgery. Radiosurgery is used to treat tumors and this can help in the operation without damaging the surrounding tissues.
- Without interruptions:
Like a human, Machines do not need frequent breaks and refreshments. They are programmed for long hours and can perform continuously without getting bored, distracted or even tired.
Disadvantages of artificial intelligence:
- High cost:
The creation of artificial intelligence requires enormous costs since they are very complex machines. Its repair and maintenance require huge costs. They have software programs that need frequent rankings to meet the needs of the changing environment and the need for machines to be smarter every day.
In the case of serious breakdowns, the procedure for recovering lost codes and restoring the system can take a lot of time and cost.
- There are no replicating humans:
It is believed that intelligence is a gift of nature. An ethical argument continues, whether human intelligence is replicated or not.
Machines have no emotions or moral values. They do what is programmed and cannot judge right or wrong. They cannot even make decisions if they encounter a situation that is unfamiliar to them. Either they are performed incorrectly or they are broken down in such situations.
- It does not improve with experience:
Unlike humans, artificial intelligence cannot be improved by experience. Over time, it can lead to wear. It stores a large amount of data, but the way it can be accessed and used is very different from human intelligence. Machines can not alter their responses to changing environments.
In the world of artificial intelligence, there is nothing like working with a whole heart or with passion. Attention or concerns are not present in the machine intelligence dictionary.
- No original creativity:
AI is no match for the power of thinking that the human brain has or even the originality of a creative mind as it just can help us design and create. Human beings are highly sensitive and emotional intellectuals. Come, hear, think and feel. Your thoughts are guided by the feelings that are completely lacking in the machines. The inherent intuitive capabilities of the human brain cannot be replicated.
The replacement of humans with machines can lead to large-scale unemployment. Unemployment is a socially undesirable phenomenon. People who have nothing to do can lead to the destructive use of their creative minds. Humans can depend unnecessarily on machines if the use of artificial intelligence becomes rampant. They will lose their creative power and they will become lazy. Also, if humans start thinking in a destructive way, they can create havoc on these machines.
There is a lot to think about when it comes to working with robots. Following words must keep in mind;
- A robot must not hurt a person or cause harm to others through action.
- A robot must follow the instructions of the people unless such instructions contradict the First Law.
- A robot must protect its own existence as long as that protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.
These laws have been used by both science fiction authors and robotics developers since Asimov wrote them. Now, it seems that the development of robots is not enough if it accelerates exponentially and penetrates the field of complexity.
Artificial intelligence has entered a number of areas. Here are six examples.
- AI in health care;
The most important bets are to improve patient outcomes and reduce costs. Companies use machine learning to make diagnoses better and faster than humans. One of the best-known health technologies is IBM Watson. It understands natural language and can answer the questions that are asked. Other artificial intelligence applications include chatbots, a computer program used online to answer questions and help customers schedule follow-up appointments or to help patients with billing, as well as virtual health assistants who provide information.
- AI in business;
The automation of robotic processes is used in the often repetitive tasks that humans usually perform. Machine learning algorithms are integrated with the analysis and CRM platforms to provide information on how to better serve customers. Chatbots have been integrated into websites to provide customers with instant service. The automation of work has become a topic of conversation between academics and IT analysts.
- AI in training;
AI can automate the classification and give more time to educators. AI can judge students and adapt to their needs to help them work at their own pace. AI tutors can provide additional support to students to ensure they are on track. AI could change where and how students learn, and perhaps even replace some teachers.
- AI in finance;
AI in personal financial applications such as Mint or Turbo Tax bothers financial institutions. Applications such as these collect personal information and provide financial advice. Other programs, such. B. IBM Watson applied to the purchase of a home. Nowadays, the software executes a large part of the Wall Street operations.
- AI in the law;
The discovery process that involves searching for documents in the law is often overwhelming for humans. By automating this process, time is used more efficiently. Newly created companies also create a question and answer computer assistants that can examine the programmed questions by examining the taxonomy and ontology associated with a database.
- AI in production;
This is an area that has played a pioneering role in the integration of robots into the workflow. Industrial robots used to perform individual tasks and were separated from human workers, but as technology progressed, it changed.
The aspiring AI programmer should also become familiar with the leading platforms in the market. As the wealth of solutions increases day by day, some of the more basic systems provide a relatively simple learning curve for those who are already familiar with common programming languages.
The most popular ones can be Google’s TensorFlow and the Melissa platform designed for the Raspberry Pi entry-level computing environment. Both provide an easy introduction to AI programming, although Melissa needs a little more knowledge of programming languages such as Python.
There are also services like Wit.ai and Api.ai that use speech recognition to convert verbal commands into text. They also use simple programming elements called “intentions” and “entities” that serve to define the action to be taken and the device and/or service on which to act.
Jobs in AI
Medical personnel must understand what AI is capable of and what should be kept under human supervision, especially if AI intervenes in areas such as radiology and pharmacology.
However, today’s knowledge worker already sees AI as an asset to its work rather than a potential threat. A recent Accenture study has shown that more than two-thirds of corporate employees believe that AI will open up new opportunities and that knowledge of AI over the next three to five years will be a priority. The challenge, however, will be to determine exactly what those skills will be. After all, the AI will be doing a large part of the mundane numeration that currently generates high salaries. Then, in the future, it could well be that highly valued mathematical and technical skills of creative endeavors, such as literature and design space.
There are already stories of fully automated factories that produce thousands of products with only a few dozen workers. But this was the pattern of a civilization long before the Industrial Age, when the first farmer to gather a pair of oxen to a plow realized that he could now do the work of 100 hands of field or more.
Is AI Outsmarting Humans?
Artificial intelligence has achieved all kinds of benefits. A self-taught computer provided important news in January when he developed the “ultimate” strategy to win poker after playing 2 billion simulated hands. Computer intelligence knew all about the problem and could analyze millions of facts, movements, strategies, etc. on the site to compete with an opponent. In this case, the AI does not know which cards the opponent has “in the hole” and, therefore, deals with incomplete knowledge. Nor does it have a profile on its opponent to know when and how often “bluffs” and if the opponent has some “tics” or expressions that betray bluffs (although it can learn them during the session).
Are artificial intelligence (AI) and artificial neural networks (ANN) the same?
Artificial intelligence (AI) and artificial neural networks (ANN) are two exciting and interrelated areas of computing. However, there are some differences between the two that make it worth learning.
The main difference is that neural networks are a step in the search for artificial intelligence.
Artificial intelligence is a vast field that aims to create intelligent machines, which has often been achieved according to its definition of intelligence.
Artificial neural networks try to restore this learning system to computers by creating a simple framework program to respond to a problem and receive feedback on how it works.
Security and ethical concerns
The application of AI to self-driving cars poses safety and ethical problems. Cars can be pirated, and if a self-contained vehicle is involved in an accident, the responsibility is not clear. Autonomous vehicles can also be placed in a position where an accident is inevitable, forcing programming to make an ethical decision about how to minimize damage.
Another important concern is the possible misuse of artificial intelligence tools. Hackers are starting to use sophisticated machine learning tools to access sensitive systems, which makes the security problem more difficult than the current level. Audio and video generation tools based on deep learning also provide bad actors with the necessary tools to create the so-called fakes that convince attractive videos.
WHY INVESTIGATE AI’S SECURITY?
In the short term, the objective of keeping the impact of AI on society beneficial motivates research in many areas, from economics and law to technical issues such as verification, validity, safety, and control. While your small laptop crashes or gets hacked, it can be little more than a minor annoyance, so it’s more important that an artificial intelligence system does what you want it to do if you control your car, your plane, your pacemaker, your automated trading system or your electrical network. Another short-term challenge is to prevent a devastating arms race with lethal autonomous weapons.
Regulation of AI technology
Despite these potential risks, there are few rules for the use of AI tools and, where there are laws, generally only indirectly refer to AI. For example, federal provisions on fair lending dictate that financial institutions should explain credit decisions to potential customers. This limits the extent to which lenders can use deep learning algorithms, which are usually opaque in nature. The European GDPR strictly limits the use of customer data by companies, which affects the training and functionality of many AI applications for the consumer.
In 2016, the National Council of Science and Technology published a report that examines the role that government regulation could play in the development of AI. However, it was not recommended to consider specific legislation. Since then, the issue has received little attention from the legislature.
How can AI be dangerous?
AI is programmed for making autonomous weapons which are artificial intelligence systems that are programmed to kill. In the hands of the wrong person, these weapons could easily cause massive casualties. On the other hand, an AI arms race could inadvertently lead to an AI war that also results in mass casualties. To avoid being fooled by the enemy, these weapons would be designed to be extremely difficult to simply “turn off”, so that humans can lose control of such a situation. This risk is present even with the narrow AI, but it grows as the intelligence and autonomy levels of the AI increase.
The AI is programmed to do something beneficial but develops a destructive method to achieve its goal: this can happen whenever we fail to fully align the objectives of the AI with ours, which is surprisingly difficult. If you ask an obedient smart car to take you to the airport as fast as possible, you could take it there by helicopter and covered in vomit, not doing what you wanted, but literally what you asked for. If a super intelligent system is assigned an ambitious geoengineering project, it could wreak havoc on our ecosystem as a side effect and see human attempts to stop it as a threat to fulfill.
#2 Full form of AI
Another full form of AI is Artificial insemination. Artificial insemination (AI) is the most important single technique designed for the genetic improvement of humans or animals because a few selected males produce enough sperm to inseminate thousands of females per year. In contrast, relatively little progeny can be produced per female per year, even by embryo transfer.
Advantages of AI in humans;
For some couples who have trouble conceiving, artificial insemination can be a beneficial and successful treatment. Some of the conditions by which a doctor can recommend artificial insemination include:
- The first benefit of artificial insemination is that it allows couples in which the man is infertile to have a baby.
- It allows men with a low sperm count or low sperm motility to fertilize their wives. In cases where natural conception is unlikely, artificial insemination appears as a timely intervention.
- Affordability is one of the benefits of artificial insemination that couples can enjoy. In comparison with other methods, this method is very affordable.
- Safety is one of the advantages of artificial insemination. If the sperm is not safe or clean, the doctor will clean it or discard it. Such measures help reduce the chances of having a baby with health complications.
- Artificial insemination also provides the benefit that a single woman or a same-sex couple can get pregnant using the donated sperm.
- Some couples have problems with sex and, therefore, it becomes difficult for the woman to conceive. In such conditions, artificial insemination is useful as a remedy because sperm can be collected to fertilize the wife.
It is beneficial for the women whose cervical mucus may be unfavorable to getting pregnant with a history of endometriosis.
Advantages of AI in animals;
- It allows the widespread use of outstanding bulls with valuable genetics for any livestock operation.
- It facilitates progeny testing under a range of environmental and management conditions, which further improves the accuracy of the selection.
- It leads to better performance and potential of the farm herd.
- It allows crossbreeding to change a trait of production.
- Accelerates the introduction of a new character.
- It enables the use of deep-frozen semen after a donor dies, helping in the conservation of selected lines.
- It allows the use of semen of incapacitated or oligospermic males.
- Reduces the risk of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases.
- It is usually essential after estrus synchronization in large groups of animals.
- It can allow males with desirable genetic markers to be used in specific genetic matings.
- It provides a useful research tool to investigate many aspects of male and female reproductive physiology.
Why is artificial insemination used?
Artificial insemination can be used to treat couples that can produce healthy sperm and eggs but, due to a health condition or for an unknown reason, cannot get pregnant through sexual intercourse.
Some of the reasons why couples have artificial insemination are given below.
If a man cannot produce any healthy sperm, the sperm of a donor can be used. A donor’s sperm can also be used if a woman wants to raise a child alone or if a woman is in a same-sex relationship and wants to get pregnant.
In the case of men
Artificial insemination can be recommended if a man has:
- Fertility problems
- erectile dysfunction (impotence)
- premature ejaculation
- infertility caused by medical treatment
- Fertility problems
The most common cause of male infertility is abnormal semen. Semen is the fluid that contains sperm and that is ejaculated during sex. Abnormal semen accounts for three-quarters of cases of male infertility. Reasons for abnormal semen include:
- The decrease in the number of sperm: the man has a very low sperm count or no sperm
- decreased sperm motility: this means that it is more difficult for sperm to swim to the egg
- abnormal sperm: sometimes sperm can have an abnormal shape, which hinders the movement and fertilization of an egg.
For intrauterine insemination (IUI) to work, the semen must be of sufficient quality before placing it in the woman’s uterus. For example, semen may need to contain a certain number of sperm. Different clinics can use different criteria to determine sperm quality.
Erectile dysfunction is when a man cannot have or maintain an erection during sexual intercourse. It often has both physical and psychological causes. For example, a physical cause could be that the blood vessels leading to the penis are narrowed. Psychological causes can include anxiety and depression.
Ejaculation is where the semen is expelled from the penis during an orgasm. Premature ejaculation defines a man ejaculates too quickly. If a man ejaculates before his penis is inside his partner’s vagina, it can affect fertility.
Several medical treatments can cause infertility in men, including:
- Chemotherapy: a cancer treatment that uses potent medications.
- Radiation therapy: a treatment for cancer that uses high-energy radiation.
- Orchiectomy: a surgical procedure to remove one or both testicles, which is sometimes used to treat testicular cancer.
If a man needs to undergo one of these treatments and wants to have a child, he may have the option of freezing a sperm sample so it can be used at a later date.
Artificial insemination can be recommended if a woman has:
- ovulation problems
Infertility in women can be caused by problems with ovulation, the monthly release of an ovum from the ovaries. Some ovulation problems prevent ovules from being released, while others cause an egg to be released during some cycles but not in others.
Ovulation problems can occur as a result of conditions such as:
- Premature ovarian failure: the ovaries stop working before the woman turns 40.
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a condition that makes it difficult for the ovaries to produce an egg
Endometriosis is a condition where cells that usually only grow in the lining of the womb grow in other parts of the reproductive system, such as the fallopian tubes or the ovaries. The condition causes abundant and, at times, painful periods and, in a small number of women and can lead to infertility.
IUI is often used in women with minimal to mild endometriosis who have trouble getting pregnant. The severity of endometriosis is assessed by measuring the amount of tissue that grows outside the uterus. In minimal to mild endometriosis, only small portions of tissue are found outside the uterus.
IUI is not recommended for women who have more severe symptoms of endometriosis. This is because severe cases of endometriosis can cause the uterus to be marked, which means that IUI is unlikely to be successful.
IUI can be an effective treatment for couples who cannot conceive a child, but where there is no obvious medical reason for this case.
IUI is much less expensive than in vitro fertilization (IVF). IVF is a technique in which an ovum is surgically removed from the ovaries and fertilized outside the body.
What type of infertility can artificial insemination treat?
The procedure can be used for many types of fertility problems. In cases involving male infertility, it is often used when there is a very low sperm count or when the sperm is not strong enough to swim through the cervix and into the fallopian tubes.
When the problem is female infertility, it is sometimes done if you have a condition called endometriosis or if you have something abnormal in your reproductive organs.
Doctors also often suggest artificial insemination when they cannot discover the reason why a couple is infertile.
What to expect during the procedure
Your doctor will use ovulation kits, ultrasounds, or blood tests to make sure you are ovulating when you receive artificial insemination. Then, your partner must provide a sample of his semen. The doctor will suggest that your partner avoid sexual intercourse 2 to 5 days before the procedure to make sure that his sperm count is high.
The technicians liquefy the sperm at room temperature for 30 minutes and add a harmless chemical to separate the most active sperm. To collect the best sperm, a centrifuge is used. They are placed in a thin tube called a catheter and are inserted through the vagina and cervix into the uterus.
In some cases, before undergoing a procedure, your doctor will administer fertility medications, such as clomiphene citrate (Clomid). This helps your body to ovulate multiple eggs.
Success of AI
The success of artificial insemination depends more on the approach adopted. The factors include:
- the age of a woman
- use of fertility drugs
- underlying fertility concerns
- Poor egg or sperm quality
A severe case of endometriosis.
Much damage to the fallopian tubes, usually due to long-term infection
Fallopian tube blockage – IUI will not work in this case
In this type of artificial insemination, it actually involves inserting sperm into the cervix. This is the passage just outside the womb. This approach can be used in a hospital or at home. The steps for this process include:
- A woman will control her ovulation cycle using a calendar method, ultrasound, taking her temperature regularly or a combination of these.
- A woman’s partner will donate the sperm for use or a woman will get a sperm sample from a donor.
- A doctor will insert the sperm into the vagina with a special syringe. Another option is to place the sperm in a cervical cap that is inserted into the cervix and held for a designated period of time.
- A woman will normally receive instructions to lie down for 15 to 30 minutes. This ideally allows the sperm to move upward from the cervix into the uterus.
In about two weeks or a little longer, she will take a pregnancy test to determine if the insemination process was successful.
IUI is a procedure that involves inserting a sperm beyond the cervix and directly into the uterus. The steps for this process are similar to those of ICI but are usually performed in the hospital and with specially prepared sperm. Additional steps include:
Semen is prepared or “washed” to eliminate potential proteins that could affect fertilization. This also makes the sperm more concentrated. Ideally, this will increase the likelihood that a woman will conceive. A doctor will use a special instrument called a speculum to facilitate access to the uterus. They will use a thin, special instrument that is inserted through the vagina and place the sperm in the uterus.
There is an increased risk of multiple births, such as twins, if a woman has intrauterine insemination (IUI) in combination with fertility drugs. In cycles of IUI combined with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a fertility hormone that increases the number of ovules produced, multiple pregnancy rates range from 10 to 40%.
Multiple births are associated with an increased risk of:
- miscarriage – the loss of a baby during the first 23 weeks
- low birth weight: babies born weighing less than 2.5 kg (5.5 pounds)
- Preterm birth – babies born before 37 weeks of pregnancy
The risk of death for premature babies during the first week of birth is five times higher for twins and nine times higher for triplets than for single babies.
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a rare but potentially serious complication that can occur when a woman uses fertility drugs during a course of IUI treatment. For reasons that are not fully understood, some women’s ovaries become inflamed after the use of fertility drugs. In most cases, the inflammation is mild and causes symptoms of:
- mild to moderate abdominal pain
- occasional nausea and vomiting
- short of breath
Symptoms of OHSS usually develop four or five days after the initial use of fertility drugs. Women should contact the doctor as soon as possible if they think they may have OHSS.
There is a slight risk of perforating the uterus during intrauterine insemination. There is a slight risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome if superovulation is used in conjunction with insemination. There may be an increased risk of birth defects for babies conceived by certain assisted reproduction techniques. Talk to your doctor about these possible risks.
How well it works
Intrauterine insemination can improve the chances of getting pregnant when combined with a superovulation treatment for the couples with unexplained infertility. Intrauterine insemination may slightly improve the chances, up to 10%, of the female partner becoming pregnant if the man’s sperm is absent, low in quantity or of low quality.
IUI is more expensive than ICI because;
- it is more invasive performed in a hospital
- It usually involves sending the sperm to a laboratory.
Can it be done at home?
Some women can choose home insemination. Most commonly, inseminations in the home are ICI procedures.
Some of the benefits of artificial insemination in the home are that a woman can be in the privacy of her home. More commonly, a professional like a midwife will use an unwashed specimen that is obtained directly and immediately from a man.
People can also buy insemination kits at home. These kits come with semen containers and syringes to collect the semen and insert it through the vagina. While the procedure is fairly simple, it can be difficult for a woman to act on herself. It may take several attempts before a successful conception.
Semen is deposited on the oviduct papilla of the ipsilateral pole on the side of the preovulatory follicle using an endoscope. This technique allows visualization of the oviductal papilla.
Although it may give better results when the dose of insemination is close to the capacity of the oviductal sperm reservoir, it requires two assistants and consumes more time.
Breeding with a very low dose (<5.0 × 106 sperm with progressive mobility) and a very small volume (<20-500 μL) of semen from a subfertile, reserved or old person, or using semen classified by sex.
- Sedation: Combination of detomidine-butorphanol
- Sterilized and preheated endoscope (37 ° C) (at least 1.2 m long) with internal insemination catheter
- Preparation of the endoscope:
- Extract the semen in the internal catheter with a 5 ml syringe: 2 ml of air + Semen
- Pass the insemination catheter in the endoscope channel.
- Possible complications and common mistakes to be avoided.
- Excess air insufflation in the uterus prevents the semen from adhering to the UTJ.
- Place the sterile endoscope in the uterine body through the cervix.
- Remove the gloved hand from the vagina.
- Bring the endoscope to the tip of the horn under rectal guidance.
- Close the horn around the scope to two-thirds of its length and insufflate a moderate amount of air only in the distal third of the horn (the endometrial folds should still be visualized).
- Put the endoscope in direct contact with the papilla of the UTJ.
- Inject the semen into the oviductal papilla.
- Remove air from the uterus by endoscopic suction or transrectal massage.
- As an alternative to step 2, the hand of the inseminator can remain in the vagina:
- Close the cervix around the endoscope.
- Inject a moderate amount of air into the uterus.
- Advance the endoscope to the tip of the shaft ipsilateral to the ovary where ovulation has occurred (or where the preovulatory follicle is located): Closely monitor the orientation of the endoscope to go into the designated horn.
What to expect
These techniques are performed on an outpatient basis and require only a short recovery time. You may experience cramping during the procedure, especially if you insert sperm into the uterus. You may be advised to avoid strenuous activities for the rest of the day.
Alternatives to artificial insemination.
If a woman has not become pregnant after six cycles of artificial insemination, she may want to evaluate her additional fertility options with her doctor. In addition, some women may not be able to perform artificial insemination due to underlying fertility problems that make conception unlikely. For example, a woman to whom both fallopian tubes were removed cannot get pregnant by artificial insemination.
In these cases, a doctor may recommend an additional fertility treatment called in vitro fertilization (IVF). This treatment consists of extracting eggs from a woman and sperm from a man. These are sent to a laboratory, where the sperm is used to fertilize an egg in a laboratory environment. The fertilized ovules are allowed to grow as embryos. Then, a doctor will transfer an embryo or embryos to a woman’s uterus in the hope that an embryo will implant and a successful pregnancy will occur.
What is the perspective?
Artificial insemination is a treatment that gives many couples, including same-sex couples and single women across the country, the chance to get pregnant after having difficulty in conceiving. If a woman has difficulties getting pregnant or wants to get pregnant, she should talk with her doctor about the fertility treatment options.
The virus in the semen
Cryopreserved semen doses can be “quarantined” until it is shown that the male was free of the disease at the time of semen collection. Breeding bulls used for semen collection are routinely tested for the presence of antibodies in the serum as indicative of a past infection, but some viruses, e.g. The equine arteritis virus can be poured into the semen for several weeks before there is evidence of zero transfer. In other cases, usually of congenital infection, individuals can be “shedders” of permanent viruses without ever developing antibodies.
Bacteria in the semen
Normally, in healthy animal contamination of sperm occurs in the collection of semen from the foreskin and prepuce, the abdomen of animal and the environment. Semen processing of livestock is usually carried out without access to laminar airflow, resulting in possible contamination of the laboratory environment.
Antibiotics in semen extenders
In general, in order to reduce sperm toxicity, there is a tendency to use broad spectrum and highly potent antibiotics in various combinations. However, the development of resistance can be exacerbated by these antibiotics, both for people who handle semen extenders and in the environment during the elimination of unused extensors or semen doses.
Prerequisites for AI
The prerequisites for AI include a supply of semen, reliable methods for detecting estrus in the female and a means to insert semen into the female reproductive tract.
MANAGEMENT OF MALE / SEMEN COLLECTION
When young males are fed and handled properly, semen can be collected successfully at the following approximate ages: bulls, 12 months; rams, goats and wild boar, from 7 to 8 months; And stallions, 24 months. Of great importance for an AI, the program is the correct collection of semen.
Collection of semen
The average ejaculate contains 8 to 16 billion total sperm. A weekly average to fight is a total of 30 billion sperm cells. If a bull does not mount after 5 minutes, it will require more stimulation to provide a satisfactory ejaculation. The best semen collection method is with an artificial vagina. There are three universal sizes of artificial vagina 25, 30, and 40 cm. The artificial vagina (AY), which is made of a cylindrical rubber tube, a thin rubber coating, a thin-walled rubber cone, and a collection bottle enclosed in an insulated cover.
Thawing of the semen
The defrosting of 2 or 3 ml straws is done in a water bath at 37 ° C (45 seconds). The inseminator should be able to provide some protection for thawed semen on cold days. Never allow the semen to cool or refreeze. Try to dry the straw and keep the temperature at 37 ° C while loading the insemination gun in cold weather. Preheat the gun by rubbing it vigorously several times.
Future trends in AI
It is very likely that the use of AI in cattle will continue to increase. AI not only facilitates more effective and efficient livestock production but can also be coupled with other biotechnologies in development, such as cryopreservation, the selection of robust sperm by single-layer centrifugation and the selection of sperm sex.
AI in increasing the efficiency of livestock production
In addition to some specialized units of sheep or goats that focus on milk production for cheese and intensive meat production, the breeding of these species tends to be limited to marginal lands that are not suitable for crop production or grazing. of dairy cattle. There has been a limited selection for production traits. Therefore, it is likely that in the future there will be an increase in the use of AI in sheep and goats, with an emphasis on improving production traits by introducing superior genes. However, it is essential that any A.I. The plan aimed at the large-scale improvement of the national herd should be supported by the improvement of animal husbandry and animal health, otherwise, the pregnancies resulting from the AI will not come to term, and the offspring will not survive or not will prosper.
Selection of biomimetic sperm
A potential disadvantage of AI is that the mechanisms of natural selection within the female reproductive tract to select the best sperm for fertilization can be omitted when AI is used. Biomimicry is the use of technologies and/or processes that mimic a natural event. Several in vitro procedures have been suggested that could be used to mimic the selection of good quality sperm in the female reproductive tract and, therefore, fit the definition of biomimetics in ART.
Human sperm for fertility treatment is usually processed to eliminate seminal plasma and select those of better quality. In most cases, this is achieved either by sperm migration, in which the more mobile sperm are separated from the rest of the ejaculate or by density gradient centrifugation, where the most robust sperm are selected. The benefits of density gradient centrifugation are as follows:
- Slightly mobile and abnormal sperm are removed,
- Sources of ROS (cellular debris, leukocytes, epithelial cells, and dead or dying sperm) are eliminated;
- During frozen and non-frozen storage. sperm survival is improved;
- Bacterial contamination is controlled without antibiotics.
Single layer centrifugation
A new technique of sperm preparation, single-layer centrifugation (SLC) through a colloid, was developed to select the most robust sperm from the ejaculates. This method is similar to density gradient centrifugation (DGC) but is more suitable for animal semen since it has been expanded to process complete ejaculates.
Many methods have been proposed to separate the sperm carrying the X and Y chromosomes, according to the physical properties, eg. size of the sperm head, or functional properties, p. swim speed, However, the only method that has been proven to work reliably is the selection and separation of sperm whose DNA is stained with a bis-benzimidazole dye, H33342, using the classification capability of a cytometer. flow.
In addition, the pregnancy rate after insemination of sexed bull sperm is lower than with non-sexed sperm, which makes the procedure inefficient and expensive.
The capacity of cryopreserved sperm to maintain its fertilization capacity varies widely among species. New cryoextensors and new protocols are constantly being developed in an effort to address this problem. A recent breakthrough has been the introduction of dimethylsulfoxide and the amides formamide and dimethylformamide as cryoprotectants, in place of glycerol. These molecules seem to work better than glycerol for some individuals whose sperm do not freeze well, for example, some stallions.
Elimination of virus from the ejaculation
Viral infectivity can be eliminated from the semen of patients with viral infections such as HIV and hepatitis, by means of a sequential method of sperm preparation, that is, centrifugation in a density gradient followed by a “bath”. Spermatozoids of men infected with viruses prepared by this method has been used in assisted reproduction attempts, apparently without seroconversion of mothers or children.
IA in conservation biology
It has been suggested that AI and other forms of ART could be useful for genetic conservation and the conservation of rare breeds. Semen cryopreservation has been the most widely used antiretroviral treatment in this regard, but much-frozen semen in so-called gene banks has never been tested for fertility. The long-term storage of frozen gametes of unknown fertility is not a sustainable policy for the conservation of rare breeds and endangered species. The development of in vitro methods to evaluate sperm fertility would contribute considerably to conservation efforts.