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Are you looking for the short form of ‘Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome’? Here in this article, you will find the short form of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Find out what is the short form of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome on fullforms.imnepal.com
Are you looking for the abbreviation of ‘Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome’? Here in this article, you will find the abbreviation of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Find out what is the abbreviation of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome on fullforms.imnepal.com
Full Form of AIDS
Full Form of AIDS is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
What Does AIDS Stands For
AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
Abbreviation of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Abbreviation of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is AIDS.
Short Form of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Short form of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is AIDS.
Introduction to AIDS
AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. It is a pattern of devastating infections caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, that attacks and destroys certain white blood cells that are essential for the body’s immune system.
When HIV infects a cell, it combines with the genetic material of that cell and can remain inactive for years. Most people infected with HIV are still healthy and can live for years without symptoms or only with minor illnesses. They may be suffered from HIV, but they do not have AIDS.
After a variable period, the virus becomes active, and then progressively leads to serious infections and other conditions that characterize AIDS. Although there are treatments that can prolong life, AIDS is a deadly disease. Research continues on possible vaccines and, ultimately, a cure. For the time being, however, prevention of transmission remains the only method of control.
The route of infection
In adults, HIV targets two groups of white blood cells called CD4 + lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Normally, CD4 + cells and macrophages help to recognize and destroy bacteria, viruses or other infectious agents that invade a cell and cause diseases.
In a person infected with HIV, CD4 + lymphocytes are eliminated by the virus, while macrophages act as reservoirs and transport HIV to various vital organs. HIV adheres to the CD4 + lymphocyte and makes its way inward.
This causes the production of more HIV by cell but, in doing so, the cell is destroyed. As the body’s CD4 + cells become depleted, the immune system weakens and is less able to fight viral and bacterial infections. The infected person becomes susceptible to a wide range of “opportunistic” infections, such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, which rarely occurs in people with normal immune systems.
Tuberculosis (TB) poses a particular threat to HIV-positive people, especially in areas of the world where both TB and HIV infection are increasing at alarming rates. Millions of TB carriers who would otherwise have escaped active tuberculosis are now developing the disease because their immune systems are being attacked by HIV.
TB also progresses a faster in people infected with HIV and is more likely to be fatal if it is not diagnosed or treated. Tuberculosis is now the leading cause of death for people infected with HIV. People infected with HIV are also more susceptible to rare cancers, such as Kaposi’s sarcoma, a tumor of the blood vessels or lymphatic vessels.
HIV can also attack the brain, causing neurological and neuro-psychiatric problems. In general, about 50 percent of adults infected with HIV can develop AIDS within 10 years after the first infection. The good news is that early treatment with improved medications significantly prolongs the lives of people with AIDS.
A history of the epidemic.
In the early eighties, a pattern of highly unusual infections emerged in young adults who would otherwise be healthy. This pattern, or syndrome, was caused by an unknown entity that apparently attacked the body’s immune system. It came to be known as AIDS.
Researchers isolated a new virus, HIV, the cause of AIDS between the year 1983 and 1984. This made possible a blood test to detect antibodies against the virus. It was discovered that HIV is an infectious agent known as a retrovirus. Different retroviruses were found in some animals but, until then, they were rare in humans.
For more than 20 years, HIV may have been infecting some human populations relatively benignly. Since the discovery of HIV, several strains of the virus has been identified. In 1985, a related virus was found in parts of West Africa and was called HIV-2 to distinguish it from the previous virus (HIV-1).
The disease pattern is similar for both HIV-1 and HIV-2. In the early 1980s, it was thought that only about 100,000 adults worldwide were infected with HIV. At the end of 1998, the number of adults and children living with HIV or AIDS increased to more than 33.4 million.
The route of infection in infants and children.
Most babies and children infected with HIV acquired the infection from their mothers before, during or shortly after birth or during breastfeeding. Only a small proportion is infected through blood transfusions or injections contaminated with HIV. In children infected from birth, there are two patterns of disease progression.
Approximately half of these children progress rapidly to AIDS, but others continue without symptoms for years, as do adults. Studies show that, in developed countries, approximately two-thirds of infected children are still alive at 5 years of age. In developing countries, the figure ranges from 30 to 65 percent.
How HIV is transmitted
To date, there are only four main methods of transmission:
- sexual intercourse (anal and vaginal);
- contaminated blood and blood products, tissues, and organs;
- contaminated needles, syringes, and other piercing instruments;
- mother-to-child transmission (MTCT).
HIV can be transmitted through unprotected sex that is, any sexual act of penetration in which a condom is not used. Anal and vaginal intercourse can transmit the virus from a man infected with HIV to a woman or another man, or from an infected woman to a man.
The risk of becoming infected through unprotected sex depends on four main factors: the probability that the sexual partner is infected, the type of sexual act, the amount of virus present in the blood or sexual secretions (semen, vaginal secretions) or cervical) of the infected partner, and the presence of other sexually transmitted diseases and / or genital lesions in either partner. Age can also be a factor since girls are physiologically more vulnerable.
There is a strong link between sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and sexual transmission of HIV infection. The presence of an untreated STD, such as gonorrhea, chlamydia infection, syphilis, herpes or genital warts, can improve both the acquisition and transmission of HIV by a factor of up to 10. Therefore, the treatment of STDs is an important strategy for the prevention of HIV in a general population.
Contaminated blood or blood products, tissues, and organs Blood transfusions save millions of lives every year, but in places where safe blood supply is not guaranteed, people who receive transfused blood have an increased risk of becoming infected with HIV.
In most industrialized countries, the risk of contracting HIV from transfusions is extremely low. This is largely due to the effective recruitment of voluntary and regular blood donors; better donor testing procedures; universal detection of blood and blood products with highly sensitive and specific tests for the antibody against HIV; and the proper use of blood.
In the developing world, however, the risk is much greater. One estimate is that up to 5 percent of HIV infections can be caused by transfusions in areas of high prevalence, such as sub-Saharan Africa. The lack of coordinated national blood transfusion systems, the absence of unpaid voluntary blood donors, the lack of evidence and the inappropriate use of blood products complicate the problem.
To prevent transmission through the donation of tissues and organs, including sperm for artificial insemination, the HIV status of the donor must be carefully evaluated.
Needles, syringes or other contaminated piercing instruments.
HIV can be transmitted through the use of needles contaminated with HIV or other invasive instruments. The exchange of syringes and needles by injecting drug users is responsible for the rapid increase in HIV infection among these people in many parts of the world.
A risk to non-medical procedures is also attached if the instruments used been not properly sterilized. Such procedures include perforations in the ear and body, tattoos, acupuncture, male and female circumcision, and traditional scarification.
The actual risk depends on the local prevalence of HIV infection. Transmission of HIV through injection equipment can also occur in healthcare settings where syringes, needles and other instruments, such as dental equipment, are not properly sterilized or can be damaged by needles and other sharp objects.
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT);
Mother-to-child transmission (MCT) is the overwhelming source of HIV infection in young children. The virus can be transmitted during pregnancy, childbirth, delivery or after the birth of the child during breastfeeding.
Among infants who are not breastfed, most cases of MTC occur around the time of delivery (just before or during delivery). Breastfeeding may account for more than one-third of all cases of MTCT transmission in populations where breastfeeding is the norm.
Pediatric AIDS can be difficult to diagnose because of some symptoms of HIV infection, such as diarrhea, are common in infants and children who are not infected.
Therefore, these symptoms can not be considered a reliable basis for diagnosis. There are blood-based tests that allow early diagnosis of HIV infection in infants. These are used extensively in developed countries. However, these tests are expensive and are not available in developing countries.
How HIV is not transmitted
Family, friends, and co-workers should not become infected with HIV through casual contact with HIV-infected person at home, at work, or socially. These activities will not transmit the virus:
- shaking hands, hugging or kissing
- coughing or sneezing
- using a public phone
- visiting a hospital
- opening a door
- sharing food, eating or drinking utensils
- using drinking fountains
- using toilets or showers
- using public swimming pools
- getting a mosquito or insect bite
How many people have HIV and AIDSWorldwide:
In 2017, there were approximately 36.9 million people around the world living with HIV / AIDS. Of these, 1.8 million were children (<15 years).
It is estimated that 1.8 million people worldwide were infected with HIV in 2017, approximately 5,000 new infections per day. This includes 180,000 children (<15 years). Most of these children live in sub-Saharan Africa and were infected by their HIV-positive mothers during pregnancy, childbirth or breastfeeding.
Approximately 75% of people living with HIV worldwide were aware of their HIV status in 2017. The remaining 25% (more than 9 million people) still need access to HIV testing services. HIV testing is an essential gateway for HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support services.
In 2017, 21.7 million people living with HIV (59%) accessed antiretroviral therapy (ART) worldwide, an increase of 2.3 million since 2016 and an increase of 8 million in 2010. Access to HIV treatment It is key to the global effort to end AIDS as a threat to public health.
People living with HIV who know their status, take ART daily as prescribed, and obtain and maintain an undetectable viral load can live long and healthy lives. There is also an important prevention benefit. People living with HIV who adhere to HIV treatment and obtain and maintain an undetectable viral load have no effective risk of transmitting HIV to their HIV negative partners.
AIDS-related deaths have been reduced by more than 51% since the peak of 2004. In 2017, 940 000 people died from AIDS-related diseases worldwide, compared to 1.4 million in 2010 and 1.9 million in 2004. The vast majority of people living with HIV are in low and middle-income countries.
In 2017, there were 19.6 million people living with HIV (53%) in Eastern and Southern Africa, 6.1 million (16%) in Western and Central Africa, 5.2 million (14%) in Asia and the Pacific, and 2.2 million (6). %) in Western and Central Europe and North America.
How long does it take to cause AIDS for HIV?
Currently, 8-11 years is the average time between HIV infection and the appearance of signs that could lead to an AIDS diagnosis. This time differs from person to person and can depend on many factors such as a person’s health status and behavior.
Today there are treatment regimens that can be slowed down the rate at which HIV weakens the immune system. There are other treatments that can prevent or cure some illnesses associated with AIDS. Early detection of this disease offers more options for treatment and preventative health care as with other diseases.
Myths about HIV and AIDS
Myths are strongly held beliefs that are not necessarily true about HIV / AIDS, some of which are related to cultural practices. Myths and misconceptions are an impediment to the strategies that exist to prevent and mitigate the effects of HIV and AIDS.
There has not been an established typology and an understanding of the myths and/or misconceptions in the Botswana context. However, to capture people’s knowledge, understanding, and perhaps perceptions of HIV and AIDS, several reports have attempted to determine myths and/or misconceptions.
Here are myths about HIV and AIDS;
AIDS is caused by dirty blood that results from having sex with a woman who has aborted a fetus.
AIDS is Boswagadi in Setswana, which is a disease that occurs after one has lost a partner or spouse.
Older men can be cured by having sex with young girls (cleansing the blood).
AIDS and work
For the vast majority of occupations, the workplace does not represent a risk of contracting HIV. Exceptions include laboratory workers, health workers, persons dealing with hospital waste products, emergency medical response personnel, and any other occupation where there is a possibility of exposure to blood.
Your risk is very low but real. Among the dangers to which these people may be exposed are injuries from needle sticks and other skin accidents, and the splashing of blood in the eyes while administering the treatment or performing their tasks in another way.
AIDS and sports
There are no documented cases of HIV transmission during participation in a sports activity. The very low risk of transmission during sports participation would involve sports with direct body contact in which bleeding could be expected to occur.
In theory, it is possible for the virus to be transmitted if an athlete infected with HIV has a bleeding wound or a skin lesion with fluids that came into contact with another athlete’s skin lesion, a cut or exposed mucous membrane. Even in such an unlikely event, the risk of transmission would be very low.
However, in sports that involve direct contact with the body or combat sports in which a hemorrhage can occur, it is sensible to follow two simple procedures:
clean any skin lesion with antiseptic and cover it securely;
If a bleeding injury occurs, stop participation until the bleeding has stopped and the wound has been cleansed with an antiseptic and covered securely.
Prevention of HIV transmission / Prevention of sexual transmission.
Meet your partner
Understand which sex act puts you at the highest risk
Seek medical advice or treatment for STDs.
Prevention of transmission of HIV through blood and blood products.
If you must travel to the areas of the world where the safety of the blood supply is not guaranteed, you should follow these steps:
Before traveling, identify sources of reliable medical assistance in your destination country;
carry disposable sterile needles and syringes for personal use (as a part of the WHO medical kit);
know the emergency medical evacuation procedures;
reduce the risk of injury by following safety precautions, such as using safety belts and driving carefully;
Consider using a plasma substitute (crystalloids/colloids) if you are injured and lose blood. If severe or acute blood loss has occurred, efforts should be made to ensure that the blood has been examined for HIV and hepatitis B virus.
Prevention of HIV transmission through contaminated needles.
Do not share needles or syringes.
Avoid invasive procedures, perforating the skin.
Parents should make sure that children know the facts about HIV transmission and how they can protect themselves against infections. Specifically, children should:
keep in mind that HIV is transmitted through the blood;
avoid any procedure of skin piercing or accidental injuries by unsterilized needlesand other sharp instruments;
Only when necessary, receive injections or other medical or dental treatment properly with properly sterilized equipment
receive blood transfusions only when medically necessary and only with blood properly examined;
avoid the risk of traumatic injuries that require a blood transfusion.
Older children need information and encouragement to help them avoid infection through unprotected sex or by sharing drug injection equipment. Children should also be reassured about the ways in which HIV cannot be transmitted.
They should be encouraged to sympathize with children and adults who are infected, and should not be afraid of being infected through casual contact with these people.
What the test for antibodies against HIV can tell you
The standard tests to determine if you are infected with HIV are based on the detection of antibodies to HIV in the blood, not the virus itself. There are different types of antibody tests, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and simple rapid tests (S / R). In recent years, tests have been developed that detect antibodies against HIV in saliva and urine.
The first antibody test a person receives is called a screening test. If the screening test is negative, it means no antibodies were found. The person examined is considered HIV-negative and confirmatory tests are not necessary.
If the screening test is repeatedly positive, it must be confirmed. Confirmation can be done through the use of special tests, for example, Western Blot or line immunoassays (LIA). It is also possible to confirm a positive result using combinations of ELISA or S / R tests. Although confirmation can be made on the same blood sample, it is preferable to confirm in a second blood sample to avoid errors.
Sometimes, HIV tests can give false positive readings, especially are populations where HIV is not present in a large number, so confirmation tests are always made on the results of positive screening tests. This confirmation is necessary to rule out false positive detection results.
Regarding the accuracy of antibody tests:
It takes, on average, 25 days for an HIV test to show a positive result after a person becomes infected with HIV. This is a much shorter period than before the introduction of very sensitive tests that are now used.
The test may show a negative result if a person has been infected very recently.
When saliva and urine are tested, antibodies take longer to detect.
More than 99 percent of infected people will be positive after three months.
The test for antibodies against HIV and pregnancy.
If you or your partner is worried about your HIV status and are thinking about having a baby, testing for antibodies to HIV can help clarify your options. HIV tests must be available with prior and subsequent counseling, voluntarily and confidentially.
You and your sexual partner should be advised on the implications of a positive outcome for both the fetus and the baby if pregnancy is considered. “People in the workplace who are infected with HIV (or who are perceived as) must be protected from stigmatization and discrimination by co-workers, unions, employers, and clients.”
A woman infected with HIV can transmit HIV to her baby. The most likely time for a pregnant woman infected with HIV to transmit the virus to her baby is in the early stages or in the advanced stage of her infection.
Therefore, the risk of transmission varies from low (if the woman infected with HIV has no signs and symptoms) to high (if she has AIDS).
The transmission rate ranges between 12% and more than 30%. If you are pregnant and infected with HIV, you should be advising on options to continue or terminate your pregnancy (where abortion is legal) and on how to reduce mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) through treatment with zidovudine (a sometimes called ZDV or AZT). ) during your pregnancy. Pregnancy does not seem to accelerate the progression of the clinical course of HIV infection.
The impact on your health
On the stage of infection, you have reached, the impact of your health is likely to depend. When you discover that you are HIV positive, the psychological support available to you, and your access to good medical care.
Shortly after becoming infected with the virus, some people’s experiences a brief flu-like illness with fever, swollen lymph nodes, rash, or cough. Then he can stay perfectly fit and healthy for many years despite being infected. For approximately 50 percent of infected people, the time between infection and the onset of opportunistic infections that characterize AIDS is more than 10 years.
It has been shown that combination antiretroviral therapy, although costly, delays the onset of AIDS and prolongs life expectancy. Their quality of life could also be improved by the preventive and therapeutic use of medicines that fight common opportunistic infections and other diseases to which people infected with HIV are vulnerable, such as tuberculosis.
Active TB screening and contact tracking through sputum testing are also important for families with an HIV positive member. In addition to good medical care and psychological support, from family, friends, and counseling, is essential.
In many countries, there are support groups made up of people living with HIV and AIDS. There are also numerous support groups and resources found on the Internet.
The impact on your personal relationships.
It is likely that couples suffer the consequences of HIV infection and disease as much as the infected person, albeit indirectly. This is true even if couples know they are not infected with HIV.
It is likely that their lives experience the same kind of pressures and disorders, and may experience similar feelings of uncertainty, pain, loss, and anger. Communication between the two partners and between partners and professional advisors are important to foster understanding of the adjustments that will be necessary.
For example, adjustments in sexual behavior are necessary to stop the transmission of infection. Counseling can also address the physical and psychological changes and needs that partner will experience.
If you have HIV, you have the opportunity to make others more aware of the disease. By educating others, you can lessen the prejudice against people with HIV or AIDS. However, carefully consider who discloses your HIV status.
Misunderstanding and discrimination exist and can affect you and those you love. Once again, professional advice can help with these problems. Families are often the main source of care and support for people infected with HIV, and the type of care required may change depending on the stage of infection.
Counseling for family members, both as individuals and as a family unit, can be very important, particularly as the disease progresses.
The impact on your work life
How your work life is affected will depend on how you feel physically and mentally, and at what stage your infection is discovered. Experience has shown that people with HIV infection, with or without symptoms, should continue working as a long as possible.
After the initial period of reaching an agreement with HIV infection, there usually comes a period in which we want to move on with life, and work can be an important part of this transition. Although you are not required to tell your employer and colleagues about your HIV status, certain circumstances may make it necessary for you to do so.
If your job requires you to travel, for example, you may need to go to countries where entry depends on a certificate that proves you are not infected with HIV.
In addition, it may require certain vaccines. Theoretically, you could become infected with the “living” but weakened pathogens in certain vaccines, especially if your immune system has already been damaged by HIV. It is always best to consult your doctor to determine the risks related to the vaccines or if there are alternatives.
A global vision of the epidemic
By the end of 1998. It is estimated that the number of people living with HIV has risen to 33.4 million, according to estimates from UNAIDS and WHO. Most of these people do not know they are infected.
The epidemic has not been overcome anywhere. Virtually every country in the world saw new infections in 1998 and the epidemic is out of control in many places. More than 95 percent of all people infected with HIV now live in the developing world which has experienced 95 percent of all deaths to date from AIDS.
These deaths are mainly among young adults who would normally be in their peak productive and reproductive years. The multiple repercussions of these deaths are reaching a level of crisis in some parts of the world.
Whether it is against the criteria of the deterioration of child survival, the deterioration of life expectancy, the overburdened health care systems, the increase of orphanhood or the loss of income for businesses, AIDS has never posed a major threat to development.
According to UNAIDS / WHO estimates, 11 men, women, and children worldwide were infected per minute during 1998, about 6 million people in total. One-tenth of the newly infected people were under 15 years old, bringing the number of children now living with HIV to 1.2 million.
It is believed that most of them have contracted their mother’s infection before or at birth, or through breastfeeding. While mother-to-child transmission can be reduced by providing HIV-positive women with antiretroviral drugs and alternatives to breast milk, the goal should be effective for young women, so they can avoid infection in the first place.
Unfortunately, when it comes to HIV infection, women seem to be heading towards unwanted equality with men.
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