Full Form of ATP – What Does ATP Stands For – Abbreviation


Full form of ATP:- Are you looking for the full form of ATP. If yes, then you are the right place. Here, we are giving you a solution with other facts, information, meaning, and definition.

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Full Form of ATP

The full form of ATP is Adenosine triphosphate.

What does ATP Stands For

The ATP stands for Adenosine triphosphate.

Short Form of Adenosine triphosphate

Short form of Adenosine triphosphate is ATP.

Abbreviation of Adenosine triphosphate

Abbreviation of Adenosine triphosphate is ATP.


The full form of ATP is Adenosine triphosphate. It is a molecule facilitate a variety of cellular processes which are essential for life. It produces energy from the process of hydrolysis.

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The cell uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to drive many non-spontaneous cellular processes. The energy released by breaking the bonds between the phosphate groups can be harnessed to fuel many life support reactions such as:

  • Synthesis of biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, DNA and RNA.
  • By pumping ions against a concentration gradient, occurrence of active transport.
  • Mechanical works such as muscle contraction, the rearrangement of the cytoskeleton and the beating of the cilia.

ATPase

Although the hydrolysis of ATP is a favorable reaction, ATP does not breakdown on its own. This is because, for the hydrolysis of ATP, the activation energy required is high enough that the hydrolysis of ATP does not take place without an enzyme called ATPase.

The only pair of electrons in the oxygen of a water molecule makes a nucleophilic attack in the terminal phosphate group. However, these electrons have a negative charge and are strongly repelled by the negative charges in the phosphate molecule.

ATPase helps in the overcome of this repulsion by surrounding the ATP molecule with positive ions that interact with the negatively charged ions in the phosphate molecule, allowing hydrolysis to occur. Therefore, the ATPase reduce the activation energy required for the reaction to occur.

Most ATPase takes advantage of the energy which is released from the process of hydrolysis to phosphorylate a molecule or change the conformation of ATPase and transport the solutes against the concentration gradient.

The different types of ATPase are the following:

F-ATPase; Reversible ATPase that can use a proton gradient to synthesize ATP or create a proton gradient in the hydrolysis of ATP. They are found in bacteria, plants (chloroplasts) and eukaryotes (mitochondria).

V-ATPase; Located in the Golgi apparatus, endosomes, lysosomes, and vacuoles. They hydrolyze ATP and use energy for protein trafficking, the active transport of metabolites, and the release of neurotransmitters.

A-ATPase; It is also reversible in ATPase and is only found in Archaea.

P-ATPase; It is found in bacteria and eukaryotes, and is responsible for the transport of a variety of ions against the concentration gradient using the energy generated by the hydrolysis of ATP.

ATPase structure;

Most of the ATP occurs in the mitochondria, which are part of an outer and inner membrane. The space between these two membranes is called the intermediate space, while the space surrounded by the internal membrane is called the matrix.

The inner membrane also has numerous forms known as crests, which contain the enzyme for the synthesis of ATP. ATP synthase is the enzyme which is generated within the matrix by an enzyme. It consists of 2 parts:

-F1 and

-F0

Chemical properties;

The salts of ATP can be isolated as colorless solids. In the absence of catalyst, ATP is stable in aqueous solutions between pH 6.8 and 7. 4. At more extreme pH, it hydrolyzes rapidly to ADP and phosphate.

The ratio of ATP to ADP at point ten orders of magnitude from equilibrium is maintained by living cells, with the concentration of ATP five times higher than the concentration of ADP. In the context of biochemical reactions, P-O-P bonds are often referred to as high-energy bonds.

ATP functions in cells

ATP finds use in several cellular processes. Some important functions of ATP in the cell is briefly described below:

Active transport;

ATP plays a critical role in the transport of macromolecules, such as proteins and lipids, inside and outside the cell. The hydrolysis of ATP provides the energy required for the active transport mechanisms to transport these molecules through a concentration gradient. The transport of molecules to the cell is called endocytosis, while the transport outside the cell is known as exocytosis.

Cell signal;

ATP has key functions in both intracellular and extracellular signals. In mammalian tissues, purinergic receptors easily recognize ATP. As its release from synapses and axons activates purinergic receptors that modulate the levels of calcium and cyclic AMP within the cell.

In the central nervous system, adenosine modulates the neuronal development, the control of the immune systems, and the signaling of the neurons/glia. ATP also participates in the signal transduction: its phosphate groups are consumed by kinases in the phosphate transfer reactions that activate a cascade of protein kinase reactions.

Structural maintenance;

ATP plays a very important role in the preservation of cell structure by helping the assembly of cytoskeletal elements. It also supplies energy to the flagella and chromosomes to maintain its proper functioning.

Muscle contraction;

ATP is critical for muscle contraction; it binds to myosin to provide energy and facilitate It’s binding to actin to form a cross bridge. ADP and phosphate are released and a new molecule of ATP binds to myosin. This breaks the crossed bridge between the myosin and the actin filaments, thus releasing the myosin for the next contraction.

Synthesis of DNA and RNA;

During DNA synthesis, ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) reduces the sugar residue of ribonucleoside diphosphates to form deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates such as dADP. Therefore, the regulation of RNR helps maintain the balance of deoxynucleotides (dNTP) in the cell.

Low concentrations of dNTP inhibit DNA synthesis and repair, while high levels are mutagenic because DNA polymerase tends to add the wrong dNTP during DNA synthesis.

ATP adenosine is a building block of RNA and is added directly to RNA molecules during RNA synthesis by RNA polymerases. The elimination of pyrophosphate provides the necessary energy for this reaction.

TP in the human body

The total amount of ATP in the human body is approximately 0.1 moles. The energy used daily by an adult requires the hydrolysis of 200 to 300 moles of ATP. This means that each molecule of ATP has to be recycled from 2000 to 3000 times during the day. The ATP cannot be stored and, therefore, its synthesis must closely monitor its consumption.

ATP can be synthesized by redox reactions that use lipids or simple and complex carbohydrates as an energy source. Complex energy sources must be digested into simpler molecules before being used in the synthesis of ATP. Complex carbohydrates are usually hydrolyzed into glucose and fructose; while triglycerides are metabolized to form glycerol and fatty acids.

The fundamental pathway for the production of energy in animals, plants, and microbes is the biosynthesis of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation. The production of eukaryotic ATP usually occurs in the mitochondria of the cell.

The citric acid cycle (or the Krebs cycle) and the electron transport chain (or the oxidative phosphorylation pathway) are the important pathways by which eukaryotes generate energy. Together, these 3 stages are called cellular respiration. In humans, cellular respiration converts adenosine diphosphate (ADP) into ATP and, therefore, releases energy from molecules that are rich in energy.

Glycolysis;

Glycolysis involves the metabolism of glucose and glycerol to form pyruvate. These reactions take place in the cytoplasm in most organisms and release a net amount of 2 ATPs. Here, glucose is converted to pyruvate through phosphorylation with the help of 2 key enzymes: phosphoglycerate kinase and pyruvate kinase.

The general reaction can be represented as follows:

Glucose + 2 NAD + + 2 ADP + 2 Pi to 2 Pyruvate + 2 NADH + 2 H + + 2 ATP + 2 H2O

Thus, each glucose molecule undergoes glycolysis to give 2 pyruvates. As a result of glycolysis, two reduced molecules of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and 2 molecules of water (H2O) are also produced. The NADH molecules are oxidized in the electron transport chain to produce ATP and the pyruvate produced is used as a substrate for the Krebs cycle.

Krebs cycle;

The Krebs cycle is also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and occurs in the mitochondria. It involves a series of reactions by which pyruvate is degraded into CO2, ATP, water, and electrons. The pyruvate produced by glycolysis in the cytoplasm is converted to acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) in the mitochondria.

Acetyl-CoA is converted into citrate, which then undergoes a series of redox, hydration, dehydration, and decarboxylation reactions to form isocitrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, succinyl-CoA, smoke, and malate. These reactions are catalyzed by several key enzymes in the pathway such as citrate synthase, aconitase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase.

In general, the Krebs cycle produces 2 molecules of ATP, 6 molecules of NADH and 2 molecules of reduced Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2). Acetyl-CoA derived from the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in cells are used in the Krebs cycle to generate energy.

Therefore, this is an important metabolic pathway that unites the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in living organisms.

The molecules of NADH and FADH2 generated as byproducts of the citric acid cycle is introduced into the electron transport chain, where they are oxidized to produce ATP with the help of the enzyme ATP synthase.

This enzyme is present in the mitochondria and catalyzes the production of ATP by combining ADP and inorganic phosphate. ATP synthase is often referred to as a complex molecular machine that has a central rotor that moves at a rate of 150 rotations/sec during ATP synthesis.

In total, each glucose molecule that undergoes cellular respiration produces 38 molecules of ATP, 2 ATP from glycolysis, 2 ATP from the Krebs cycle and 34 ATP from the electron transport chain.

ATP Energetics;

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is at the root of all energy organisms. ATP provides the energy for all muscle movements, heartbeats, nerve signals and chemical reactions within the body.

It is estimated that the human body uses approximately 2 × 1026 transient molecules of ATP or more than the weight of bodies; 160 kg of ATP in one day. In a high-energy phosphate bond which is the third phosphate bond,  ATP stores energy. The cut of a phosphate bond,

ATP + H2O → ADP + Pi releases around 30.6 kJ / mol.

Measurement of ATP levels

Based on the ability of luciferase to produce light in the presence of its substrate luciferin and ATP, ATP concentrations were measured using a bioluminescence assay. There is a linear relationship between the amount of light produced and the ATP present in the sample. The luminescence of a sample is compared to a standard curve of known ATP concentrations.

At each time point, 12.5 μl of the cell sample was added to an equal volume of 10% trichloroacetic acid and vigorously shaken for 1 minute to extract the ATP. 1 ml of neutralization buffer, and 10 μL of the sample was reacted with 100 μL of the luciferin/luciferase mixture to neutralize the mixtures.

The concentrations of ATP were normalized and expressed as the ratio of ATP levels in starved cells.

So how much would a pint of ATP really cost?

If you bought it as an aqueous solution of your disodium salt, the cost of a pint would be around $150,000 depending on the concentration you wanted, and the supplier you chose, anyway, significantly more than 80p!

Activation of platelets by ATP

Under normal conditions, small disc-shaped platelets circulate in the blood freely and without interaction between them. ADP is stored in dense bodies within blood platelets and is released after activation of platelets. ADP interacts with a family of ADP receptors found in platelets (P2Y1, P2Y12, and P2X1), leading to the activation of platelets. [14]

The P2Y1 receptors initiate platelet aggregation and shape change as a result of interactions with ADP.

The P2Y12 receptors further amplify the ADP response and cause aggregation to complete.

ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting the activation of platelets through adenosine receptors.

Noble prize

The Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1997 have been shared by Dr. John Walker, from the Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB) of the Medical Research Council at Cambridge, Dr. Paul Boyer of the University of California at Los Angeles and Dr. Jens Skou from the University of Aarhus in Denmark.

The award was for the determination of the detailed mechanism by which ATP displaces energy. The enzyme that produces ATP is called ATP synthase, or ATPase, and sits on mitochondria in animal cells or chloroplasts in plant cells.

Walker first determined the amino acid sequence of this enzyme and then elaborated its three-dimensional structure. Boyer showed that, contrary to the previously accepted belief, the energy required by the step to make ATP is not the synthesis from ADP and phosphate, but the initial binding of ADP and phosphate to the enzyme.

Skou was the first to demonstrate that this enzyme promoted the transport of ions through the membranes, giving an explanation for the transport of ions from nerve cells, as well as the fundamental properties of all living cells.

Later, he showed that the phosphate group that is extracted from ATP binds to the enzyme directly. This enzyme is able to transport sodium ions when it is phosphorylated in this way, but potassium ions when it is not.

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