Full Form of BCA: – BCA (Bachelor in Computer Application) is a four-year undergraduate degree program that includes the study of the basics of computer application. It provides basic knowledge about computers and their system that is necessary for an IT company. Bachelor in Computer Application (BCA) course is suitable for students who want to pursue a career in information technology.
This course offers a lot of opportunities for students who are interested in computer science and who want to work as programmers or software developers in the IT industry. The demand for computer professionals is increasing with the rapid growth of the IT industry.
During the entire semester, students are exposed to various areas of computer applications including the latest developments in the industry. After BCA, students may do further studies as an MCA-Master in Computer Application.
It is a common measure of CS / IT in Nepalese universities and is an option to the Engineering counterpart, BE / BTech in Computer Science and Engineering / IT which lasts 4 years. It is a technical degree that students for a career in the field of computer applications and created software development.
Full Form of BCA
The full form of BCA is Bachelor in Computer Application.
What Does BCA Stands for
BCA stands for Bachelor in Computer Application.
Abbreviation for Bachelor in Computer Application
Abbreviation for Bachelor in Computer Application is BCA.
Acronym for Bachelor in Computer Application
Acronym for Bachelor in Computer Application is BCA.
Bachelor of Arts in Computer Application in Nepal
The course was first started in Nepal by Tribhuwan University in the year 2074/75 with six affiliated college. Each college was allocated with 35 seats each. With the success of the program, and the increasing attraction of the students toward the course. 125 colleges are running BCA programs. This is a four years course which lies under humanities and social sciences.
The students who have passed PCL, intermediate level, or plus two with 40% marks are eligible to apply for the course. Those who have secured not less than Solid in the single subject in 2CGPA are also eligible to join the course. The course is based on the semester system with the subjects which students have to undertake are:
- Computer Application
- Elective Courses
- Maths and Statistics
- Social Science and Management
- Project and internships
BCA (Bachelor in Computer Application) course is designed that includes the study of computers and their applications. The program prepares students for the challenges and opportunities of the IT industry in Nepal by providing strong foundations.
BCA course syllabus aims to teach theory and applications. The course helps equip students with professional and communicative skills. BCA course syllabus has been formulated by significant members of the IT industry. The course is structured in such a way that the students get the basics for the introductory modules taught in the semesters under control.
The objective of this course
After studying the Bachelor of Computer Application, students will be able to improve organizational processes taking advantage of the opportunities created by technological innovation. Design and manage the organizational architecture, identifying and evaluating possible solutions.
In the same way, you can perform analysis and interpretation of data to assess the importance. And the effects of the risks associated with making decisions that directly affect organizations.
You will gain knowledge about:
- Functions and activities of a company.
- Organizational development, personnel management, group management, and decision-making
- Development and Administration of Information Systems to increase the
- Productivity and competitiveness of organizations.
- Search for behavior patterns within the company’s data for
- Detect areas of opportunity and support decision making.
- Development of infrastructure solutions suited to the needs and size of the organization.
You will gain skills for:
- Clarify the needs of the clients and translate them to the requirements of Information Systems.
- Work in teams to develop Information Systems.
- Design appropriate solutions using organizational and systems approaches.
- Develop and implement Information Systems aimed at business productivity.
- Act as a leader in information systems implementation projects.
- Analyze, organize and solve Information Systems in an organized and responsible manner to determine requirements and propose alternative solutions to the need for technology.
You will develop attitudes of:
- Integration to adapt within work teams.
- Commitment at work.
- Leadership in multidisciplinary work teams.
- Perseverance in solving problems.
- Responsibility and ethics in their professional performance.
- Entrepreneur and innovator.
- Awareness of social reality and ecological responsibility.
You will learn the Values of:
Scope in Labor Field:
- A computer consultant in its various specialties.
- Software development manager of administrative projects, in private and public companies.
- Research and contribute to the creation of knowledge.
- Develop Information Systems, through which the daily operation of companies is guided in the interaction with their different operational, managerial and management areas, as well as the management and creation of Databases.
- Create and maintain the Application Software, Information Systems required by the small, medium. And large companies such as data banks and computer networks, developing creative and innovative solutions, working in government institutions or private initiatives in different areas. Such as industrial, commercial and service, as well as independently.
#2 Full Form of BCA
Full form of BCA is Benefit of Cost Analysis.
The benefit of Cost Analysis (BCA)
The cost-benefit analysis or cost-benefit is a term that refers to both formal (discipline technique ) to be used to evaluate, or to help assess. In the case of a project or proposal, which itself is a process known as evaluation of projects.
Or an informal approach to make decisions of some kind, by intelligence knowledge inherent in all human action. It is used to determine the alternative that provides the best way to achieve benefits while maintaining savings.
A cost-benefit analysis is a study of the return, not only financial of our investments. But also of social and environmental aspects of what the project has some or all influence.
We live in the era of analytics, a large part of our decisions are based on the results we obtain daily. Possible scenarios, market studies, business plans, results in graphs. Each time we have more reasons and resources with which to achieve an effective quantification of social and economic consequences of our work.
Under both definitions, the process involves, either explicitly or implicitly, a total weight of the anticipated expenses. Against the total of the expected benefits of one or more actions in order to select the best or most profitable option. Closely related, but slightly different, are the formal techniques that include cost-effectiveness analysis and benefit effectiveness analysis.
The cost-benefit is logic or reasoning based on the principle of obtaining the highest. And best results at the least effort invested, both for technical efficiency and for human motivation. It is assumed that all the facts and acts can be evaluated under this logic, those where the benefits exceed the cost are successful, otherwise, they fail.
Cost-benefit analysis is an important technique within the field of decision theory. It aims to determine the suitability of the project through the enumeration and subsequent valuation in monetary terms of all the costs and benefits derived directly and indirectly from said project. This method is applied to social works, collective or individual projects, private companies, business plans, etc. Paying attention to the importance and quantification of its social or economic consequences.
The following is a list of methods that comprise a generic cost-benefit analysis.
- List the alternatives to projects/programs.
- List the parties
- Select the measure / s and measure all the cost/benefit elements.
- Predict the result of the cost and benefits during the relevant period.
- Turn all costs and benefits into a common currency.
- Apply the discount rate.
- Calculate the net present value of the project options.
- Perform sensitivity analysis.
- Adopt the recommended option.
Cost-benefit analysis is used in evolutionary biology to evaluate the costs and benefits of traits. For example, a behavioral ecologist can use the cost-benefit approach to explain the evolution of the game in the behavior of young animals.
The costs include the damage and the increased vulnerability of predation. While the benefits may include the improvement of a certain important skill in future successes. Deviations from the predictions based on the cost-benefit analysis can highlight the factors not considered by the researcher.
How to do a cost-benefit analysis?
The cost-benefit ratio (B / C), also known as the net rate of return, is a quotient that is obtained by dividing the Current Value of the total net income. Or net benefits (VAI) by the Actual Value of the Investment Costs. or total costs (VAC) of a project.
According to the cost-benefit analysis, a project will be profitable when the cost-benefit ratio is greater than unity. To continue with the analysis, it is convenient to use a cost management tool and keep in mind the different phases:
– Identification of collections and payments at market price.
– Corrections for transfers, where we will take into account the tax nature and subsidies and public transfers.
– External costs and benefits that have not been taken into account. This step is one of the most because it is often almost impossible to attribute a monetary value to the environmental impact of a given project.
– Determination of ‘shadow prices’, or social costs and benefits. The specifications of our project are transformed, such as tariff barriers or labor with determined salaries, outside market prices. It represents the opportunity cost of producing or consuming a good or product.
– Social discount rate, in which we will determine the moment in which we will check the minimum profitability of a project. Since not all consumer products have immediate satisfaction. Some, only after a while begin to give social and economic benefits.
– Final assessment. Before comparing the alternatives or investments analyzed, we must homogenize the cash flows of all of them. VAN and TIR valuation methods can be used. Before deciding, we will study the effects of social benefit.
Cost-benefit analysis is necessary for many projects of public origin. The European Commission periodically publishes guidelines to carry out adequate analyzes in relation to regional policies. A good reference that helps us take into account all the details of an adequate analysis in our own project.
#3 Full Form of BCA
Biological Control Agent (BCA)
The biological control is a method of controlling pests, diseases and weeds which involves using living organisms in order to control populations of other organisms.
It must be borne in mind that its use has had different meanings over time. Thus, phytopathologists have tended to use the term to denote control methods. That include crop rotation, alterations in soil pH, use of organic amendments, etc.
Other researchers differentiate a classical biological control from modern biological control where interference control techniques are included. However, the most accepted definition today is the one traditionally used by entomologists.
It is an agricultural method of pest control (insects, mites), weeds, plant diseases, etc.) that use predators, parasites, herbivores or other natural means. It can be an important component of integrated pest management and is of great economic importance for agriculture.
Concept of BCA
The concept of biological control must be differentiated from natural control. It is the control that occurs in the populations of organisms without human intervention. And that includes natural enemies as well as the action of the abiotic factors of the environment.
Therefore, biological control must be understood as an artificial method of control that has limitations. Especially in terms of knowledge of the affected organisms, which brings with it a series of advantages and disadvantages in its application. Especially if it is related to chemical methods of control.
Among the most important drawbacks are:
- Normally, its application requires a more complex approach and management, greater monitoring of the application. And is less rapid and drastic than chemical control.
- The success of its application requires greater knowledge of the biology of the organisms involved (both the agent causing the damage and its natural enemies).
- Most natural enemies tend to act on one or a few species, that is, they are highly selective. This can be an advantage but sometimes it is a disadvantage when increasing the complexity and costs derived from the need to use different control programs.
Despite this, it also presents a series of advantages that makes this type of control one of the most important for phytosanitary protection. Among them we can highlight:
- Little or no collateral harmful effect of natural enemies towards other organisms, including man.
- The resistance of pests to biological control may not be found.
- Control is relatively long term, often permanent.
- The treatment with insecticides is eliminated completely or substantially.
- The cost/benefit ratio is very favorable.
- Avoid secondary pests.
- There are no poisoning problems.
- It can be used within Integrated Pest Management (IPM).
Biological control strategies
Biological control can be carried out intentionally, directly by man. Or through indirect actions through the management of existing interactions in the agroecosystem.
The fight against the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, by means of a series of parasitic agents provides examples of a variety of biological controls.
There are three basic strategies for the application of biological control: import and increase, as a result of direct human intervention and conservation as a result of indirect actions.
Some authors define two additional strategies when considering inoculation and flood strategies at the same level as the previous ones. However, in this case, the classic scheme will be followed, so the latter two will be considered as special types within the increment strategy.
Types of biological controls
- Allelopathy: It is the study of the production and secretion of substances, such as phytohormones, to establish symbiotic or antagonistic relationships between plants in the same crop. In other words, it is the study between plants that are related to or repel each other with allelochemicals.
- Botanical pesticides: It is the use of the production of essential oils or ferohormones secreted by plants against fungal or arthropod pests. They are pesticides of vegetable origin, can be used in an aqueous form, infusion, or by extraction with organic compounds such as alcohols or ketones. For organic crops, the application in the form of aqueous extracts is recommended. Due to its easy degradation with environmental factors and leaves no residue in harvested agricultural products.
- Cheat crops: They are special crops of plants in order to attract harmful insects to keep them away from the main crops. They are usually planted on the perimeter of the field for cultivation is protected or interleaved manner.
- Predators: In general, predators are species that directly consume a large number of prey in the course of their lives. One disadvantage of predators as biological controls is that they are not specialized and can attack beneficial species as well. The ladybird beetles, particularly their larvae that are usually very active in the months from May to July. They are predators of aphids or aphids, mites, scale insects, mealybugs flour and eggs, larvae and pupae of insects, including those of the same species.
- Parasitoids: One of the advantages of parasitoids as biological controls is that most are specific and generally do not attack other species. The parasitoids lay their eggs inside, on or near their host. The larva uses this host as food and ends up killing it in the vast majority of cases. The most common parasitoids belong to the orders Hymenoptera and Diptera. The parasitoids of Hymenoptera belong to Parasitic which includes several superfamilies, such as Ichneumonoidea. Among the flies or Diptera, the Tachinidae family is composed entirely of parasitoids.
- Weed controls: A number of plants intentionally or accidentally introduced to regions beyond their range tend to become pests. Some herbivorous insects can be used for their control. Several species of insects are used for their control.
- Pathogens: Pathogenic microorganisms include bacteria, fungi, and viruses. They kill or weaken their guests and are relatively specific. There are a variety of microbial diseases of insects. Some can be used as biological pesticides. When these infections occur naturally, they can cause epidemics based on the density of the insect populations in question.
- Bacteria: Bacteria used as biological controls infect insects by the digestive tract, which is why they sometimes provide limited options for controlling insects with sucking mouthparts such as aphids and scale insects. Bacillus thuringiensis is the bacterial species most widely used, with four subspecies. At least, used to control butterflies and moths, beetles, flies, and other insect pests. You can buy the bacteria in bags of dried spores. It is mixed with water and fumigated on vulnerable plants, such as canola and fruit trees. thuringiensis is also used in some crops to make them resistant to these pests and to reduce the use of pesticides. The gram-positive bacterium, It is very specific and does not affect other invertebrate or vertebrate species.
- Mushrooms: The entomopathogenic fungi which cause diseases in insects, including at least 14 species attack aphids. Beauveria bassiana is produced on large scale and used to control a variety of insect pests, including whiteflies, thrips, aphids, and mites. Several species of Lecanicillium are used against whitefly, Thysanoptera and aphids. Metarhizium spp. They serve to control beetles, migratory locusts and other grasshoppers, Hemiptera and mites. Paecilomyces fumosoroseus is used to control white mosquitoes, thrips, and aphids. Purpureocillium lilacinus is used against nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne .89 species of Trichoderma are used against plant pathogens. The Cordyceps and Metacordyceps fungi are used against a variety of arthropods. Entomophaga serves to control the aphid Myzus persicae. Several members of Chytridiomycota and Blastocladiomycota have been studied as possible biological controls.
- Virus: The Baculovirus are specific to certain host species. Some are useful as biological controls. For example, Lymantria dispar virus has been used to control the Lymantria moth in large areas of North American forests where this insect causes severe defoliation. The caterpillars die after ingesting the virus. Viruses remain in the corpse and foliage, so they can be transmitted to other caterpillars. A mammalian virus, a virus of viral hemorrhagic pneumonia has been introduced in Australia and New Zealand in an effort to control the European rabbit population.
Benefits of biological controls
Unlike conventional agrochemicals or pesticides derived from petroleum. Biological controls offer independence and sustainability to growers without the need to contaminate groundwater or surface water and without structurally damaging the soil.