Full Form of DNA: – Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a molecule that contains the instructions that an organism needs to develop, live and reproduce. These instructions are found inside each cell and are transmitted from parents to children.
Full Form of DNA
The full form of DNA is Deoxyribonucleic acid.
What Does DNA Stands For
DNA Stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid.
Short Form of Deoxyribonucleic acid
The short form of Deoxyribonucleic acid is DNA.
Abbreviation of Deoxyribonucleic acid
Abbreviation of Deoxyribonucleic acid is DNA.
The structure of DNA and RNA.
DNA has a double helix, whereas RNA has a single helix structure. Both DNA and RNA have sets of nucleotides that contain genetic information.
The DNA was first observed by a German biochemist named Frederich Miescher in 1869. But researchers did not realize the importance of this molecule for many years. It was not until James Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin, and Maurice Wilkins discovered the structure of DNA, a double helix, that they realized could carry biological information in the year 1953.
Watson, Crick, and Wilkins won the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1962 for their discoveries about the molecular structure of nucleic acids and their importance for the transfer of information in living material.
DNA is made up of molecules called nucleotides. Each nucleotide contains a nitrogen base, a sugar base, and a phosphate group. The four types of nitrogenous bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). The order of these bases is what determines the instructions of the DNA or the genetic code. Human DNA has about 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people.
Similar to the way in which the order of the letters in the alphabet can be used to form a word, the order of the nitrogen bases in a DNA sequence forms genes, which in the language of the cell tells the cells how to produce proteins Another type of nucleic acid, ribonucleic acid or RNA, translates the genetic information of DNA into proteins.
The nucleotides join to form two long chains that form a spiral called a double helix. If we think of the double helix structure as a ladder, the bases would be the rungs while the phosphate and sugar molecules would be the sides. The bases in a pair of threads with the bases in another thread: adenine pairs with thymine and pairs of guanine with cytosine.
The DNA molecules are long, so much, in fact, that they cannot fit into the cells without the correct packaging. To fit inside the cells, the DNA coils tightly to form structures we call chromosomes. Each chromosome contains a single molecule of DNA. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, which are found inside the nucleus of the cell.
Adenine and thymine are paired by two H bonds, while cytosine and guanine are paired by three H bonds. Bases are stacked on the ladder and the hydrophobic bond between the bases gives stability to the DNA molecule.
Pairs of DNA bases
The DNA bases are paired, A with T and C with G, to form units called base pairs. Each base is also linked to a sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule.
DNA in humans contains about 3 billion bases and these are similar in two people to approximately 99% of the total bases. These bases are sequenced differently for the different information that needs to be transmitted. This is similar to the way in which different sequences of letters form words and sequences of words form sentences.
The nucleotides and the double helix.
Nucleotides are the combination of base, sugar, and phosphate. The nucleotides are arranged in two long chains that form a spiral called a double helix. This looks like a twisted ladder and the base pairs form the steps of the ladder and the sugar and phosphate molecules from the sides of the ladder.
Each chromosome is made up of a DNA that is wrapped tightly many times around proteins called histones that support its structure. Chromosomes are not visible in the nucleus of the cell, even under a microscope, when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that forms the chromosomes is more tightly compressed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope.
A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of inheritance. Genes are made up of DNA. To make molecules, some genes known as proteins act as instructions to make molecules.
However, many genes do not code for proteins. In humans, genes vary in size from a few hundred bases of DNA to more than 2 million bases. Humans have between 20,000 and 25,000 genes and this information is estimated by the Human Genome Project.
Each person has two copies of each gene, one inherited from each parent. Most genes are the same in all people, but (less than 1 percent of the total) i.e small number of genes are slightly different between people.
The forms of the same gene with small differences in their sequence of DNA bases are alleles. These small differences contribute to the unique physical characteristics of each person.
How DNA is arranged in the cell
DNA is functional, or it must be replicated when a cell is ready to divide, and it must be “read” to produce molecules, such as proteins, to carry out the functions of the cell. For this reason, DNA is protected and packaged in very specific ways.
The chromosomes of eukaryotes consist of a linear DNA molecule, employ a different type of packaging strategy to fit their DNA within the nucleus. At the most basic level, DNA wraps around proteins known as histones to form structures called nucleosomes.
The DNA is tightly wrapped around the nucleus of the histone. This nucleosome is linked to the next by a short DNA strand that is free of histones. This is also known as the structure of “beads on a string”; the nucleosomes are the “beads” and the short lengths of DNA between them are the “chain”.
Nucleosomes, with their DNA wrapped around them, are stacked together to form a 30 nm wide fiber. This fiber is rolled more into a thicker and more compact structure.
Mitochondrial DNA comprises of 37 genes which are essential for normal mitochondrial function. For making the enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, 14 of these genes provide instructions.
The process that uses oxygen and simple sugars to create adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the cell’s main energy source is called Oxidative Phosphorylation. For making molecules called transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), which are chemical cousins of DNA, the remaining genes provide instructions. Protein building blocks (amino acids) into functioning proteins are assembled by these types of RNA.
The DNA molecule is negatively charged. It has a phosphate skeleton that gives it a negative charge. This property is important when samples with DNA are subjected to tests such as electrophoresis. DNA is soluble in water. It is usually stored in a buffered solution in the laboratory.
A buffer contains the chemical buffer Tris (to control pH) and the EDTA chelating agent that helps trap cofactors for enzymes that can attack DNA. The DNA is insoluble in ethanol or purified alcohol.
Denaturing and renaturation of DNA.
DNA can be denatured and renatured. Denaturation is essentially the opening of the strands of DNA with heat. With renaturation, the strands cool and rejoin each other.
Absorption of DNA from ultraviolet light.
DNA absorbs ultraviolet light. The DNA bases called purine and pyrimidine bases to absorb light strongly in the ultraviolet range with the highest absorption at 260 nm.
Since the absorption of light is fixed for a fixed amount of DNA. The amount of light absorbed when passing through a DNA solution can be analyzed and this gives the concentration of DNA in the solution.
Form and hardness of DNA.
DNA can have a variety of shapes and lengths. Under physiological conditions, the DNA is in the so-called B-form, a right double-stranded helix. A spin or helix is repeated after every 10.4 base pairs or around 34 nanometers. The thickness of the DNA is about 2 nm and the thickness of a base pair is about 0.34 nm.
DNA is a vital component of the animal as well as plant life. It is important for an inheritance, protein coding and guidance of genetic instructions for life and its processes. DNA contains the instructions for the development and reproduction of an organism or each cell and, ultimately, death.
A protein is a complex molecule that is found in the body and that is abundant and vital to most living functions. Many different types of proteins are found in the body that includes structural proteins, messenger proteins, enzymes, and hormones. These perform various functions, from the formation of organs, skin and bones and body, to the performance of actions and functions through messengers, enzymes, and hormones. DNA carries the codes of proteins.
In addition to coding proteins, DNA also replicates. This helps in a variety of functions that include reproduction for the maintenance and growth of cells, tissues and body systems.
DNA is important in terms of inheritance. It includes all the genetic information and passes it on to the next generation. The basis for this lies in the fact that DNA makes genes and chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, a total of 46 chromosomes.
How does DNA keep its original form?
DNA carries a large amount of genetic information and the continuation of species depends on the precise duplication of DNA. This duplication process, called DNA replication, must occur before a cell can produce two genetically identical daughter cells.
Mutations and DNA change.
Despite these efforts, there are still some copy errors and accidental damage, permanent changes or mutations. Mutations in DNA often affect the information it encodes. Sometimes, these mutations can cause bacteria to become resistant to the antibiotics used to kill them.
In humans, mutations are often harmful. These can be responsible for thousands of inherited diseases and mutations that appear in the cells throughout the life of an individual. These can lead to many types of cancer.
DNA repair becomes important to prevent mutations and hereditary diseases. The DNA evolves during millions of years in the continuous division. This is what makes each species unique.
DNA sequencing is a technology that allows researchers to determine the order of bases in a DNA sequence. The technology can be used to determine the order of the bases in genes, chromosomes or a complete genome. In 2000, the researchers completed the first complete sequence of the human genome.
A person’s DNA contains information about their inheritance and, at times, it can reveal if they are at risk of contracting certain diseases. DNA tests, or genetic tests, are used for a variety of reasons, including to diagnose genetic disorders, to determine if a person is a carrier of a genetic mutation that could be transmitted to their children, and to examine whether a person is at Risk of a genetic disease.
For example, it is known that mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancer, and in the genetic test, the analysis of these genes can reveal whether a person has these mutations.
Tests are often provided along with genetic counseling to help people understand the results and consequences of the test.
Now there are many genetic testing kits in the home, but some of them are not reliable. People should be careful with these kits since the tests are essentially delivering the genetic code of a person to a stranger.
DNA is very sensitive and can easily degrade under certain conditions. Therefore, adequate storage is required to ensure high experimental standards. To store DNA for long periods of time, there are several mechanisms.
What causes DNA degradation?
Chemical degradation is the main threat to the preservation of DNA. Potential contamination by nucleases and the presence of free radicals can also cause damage to DNA and other nucleic acids, such as RNA. The storage strategies for DNA will depend on the type of DNA, the storage temperature, the intended use of the sample and the time during which the DNA will be stored.
DNA and Technology
DNA and molecular biology have advanced by leaps and bounds. It has found use in pharmacology, genetic engineering in the prevention of diseases, in increasing agricultural growth, in the detection of diseases and crimes (forensic), etc.
Due to advances in DNA technology, some fields that have shown remarkable growth which include:
pharmacology and nanotechnology
archeology and anthropometry
DNA technology in forensic medicine.
DNA is unique. Because it is unique, the ability to examine the DNA found at a crime scene is a very useful forensic tool. Common methods used to identify and describe the DNA profile include restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and short tandem repeat (STR) profiles.
Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)
In RFLP, the DNA is cut into segments of varying lengths by an enzyme, then the segments are separated according to size using a technique called electrophoresis. Electrophoresis is applied to positive and negative currents in a gel base and allows the DNA to migrate to the positive pole (since it is negatively charged).
Short profile of repetition in tandem (STR)
The short tandem repeat profile (STR) involves the use of an enzyme to make many copies of a small section of DNA. This section is then cut into pieces by another enzyme, and separated by electrophoresis. Then, the fragments are visualized with a silver spot, with the pattern of light and dark bands that is characteristic for an individual.
DNA in bioinformatics
It is estimated that the human genome has approximately 30,000 genes, which, surprisingly, only accounts for 3% of the genome. The expression of these genes, that is, the amount of protein products that will be made in a cell is strictly regulated to meet the requirements of specific cells and for cells to respond to changes in their environment.
To understand the regulation of protein synthesis is the central goal of molecular biology.
Much of this DNA that did not code for any protein was called “junk DNA” to date. It has been found that there may be signals and switches present in this junk DNA. This has paved ways to discover human diseases through the ages.
DNA in pharmacology and nanotechnology.
The three-dimensional nanostructures can contain and release drugs and regulate the folding of proteins. These have a defined potential in gene therapy.
Gene therapy involves the use of small molecules that carry the enzyme or corrective drug to the exact defective gene and identify and correct it. DNA nanotubes can be used in gene therapy. In general, viral DNA is used as the vehicle that goes and is introduced into a foreign gene. This is called transfection.
DNA in archeology and anthropometry.
The analysis of DNA extracted from archaeological samples can be used to address anthropological issues. This helps track the evolution of DNA, migratory patterns and the evolution of species over the centuries.
Exposure to chemicals that alter DNA and human cancers.
There are several human cancers that are associated with exposure to genotoxic chemicals or that alter DNA. Usually, there is a long period of time (for years) between the first events that include initial chemical exposure, the appearance of DNA damage and the binding of mutations or changes in DNA, and the subsequent appearance of a tumor.
Damage to DNA is an important first step in this cancer-causing or cancer-causing process. Chemical carcinogens can cause the formation of carcinogen-DNA adducts or can modify DNA with alterations in their ultrastructure.
The cell tries to repair many types of DNA damage or it can die as a protective measure. But these efforts can fail and residual DNA damage can lead to the insertion of an incorrect base during DNA replication and altering protein formations. The best-known example is lung cancer and oral cancer caused by tobacco.
Gene and human diseases.
DNA is constantly subject to accidental changes, mutations in its code. Mutations can lead to malformed or missing proteins, and that can lead to disease.
Dysfunctional genetic behavior is commonly referred to as a mutation. These mutations are responsible for causing diseases. In addition, if there are genetic mutations in the ovum or in the sperm cell, children can inherit the defective gene from their parents. Due to a defect in a single gene or in a set of genes, diseases can occur. Depending on the degree of genetic mutation, the diseases are classified into the following:
Chromosomal diseases: occur when missing or altering the entire chromosome, or large segments of a chromosome. Down syndrome is a prominent example of a chromosomal abnormality.
Single gene disorders: occur when there is an alteration in a gene that causes a gene to stop working. An example of a unique genetic disorder is sickle cell anemia.
Multifactorial disorders: they occur as a result of mutations in multiple genes, frequently associated with environmental causes. An example of a multifactorial disorder is diabetes.
Mitochondrial disorders: are rare disorders caused by mutations in non-chromosomal DNA located within the mitochondria. (Mitochondria are subcellular organelles). It can be found that these disorders affect any part of the body, including the brain and muscles.
It is also known that genes play a role in the emergence of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and AIDS, as well as some non-communicable diseases such as cancer and diabetes. This section includes a brief introduction to the role of genetics in some important diseases that affect the human population around the world.
New research on DNA
DNA research has led to some interesting and important findings in recent years. For example, a study published in the journal Science in the year 2017 found that random errors in DNA, not hereditary or environmental factors, account for two-thirds of cancer mutations in cells.
Another advance of 2017 is the first DNA sequencing of Egyptian mummies. In the May 2017 issue of the journal Nature Communications, the findings were published.
The films were also coded data to make a short video on the DNA molecules of the bacteria in 2017. The DNA was used as a code for each pixel in the film. In the July 2017 issue of nature, the results were published.
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