Full Forms of GRE:- The full forms of GRE include the following:
#1 Full form of (GRE)= Graduate Record Examination
The Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) is a government authorized test that is a confirmations necessity for most master’s level college in the United States. The entire procedure of GRE is administered by the Educational Testing Service (ETS). This Examination was presented during the year 1925 by an instructive approach named Carnegie Foundation for the headway of educating.
As per ETS, the GRE means to gauge verbal thinking, quantitative thinking, diagnostic composition, and basic reasoning aptitudes that have been obtained over a significant lot of learning. The substance of the GRE comprises of certain particular variable based math, geometry, number juggling, and vocabulary areas.
In the master’s level college affirmations process, the degree of accentuation that is put upon GRE scores changes broadly among schools and divisions inside schools. The significance of a GRE score can run from being a negligible confirmation convention to a significant choice factor.
The Graduate record examination test started as a joint test in advanced education by the senior members of the four noteworthy eastern colleges and the Carnegie Foundation for the progression of instructing during the year 1936.
Those first colleges which made the prerequisite of this test for their understudies are Yale University, Columbia University, Harvard University and Princeton University.
The main state funded college who suggest this test for their understudies was Wisconsin University during the year 1938. College of Iowa put this test as a necessity for confirmation for their understudies in 1940 where it was checked and analyzed by the acclaimed Psychologist of that time named Dewey Stuit.
During the year 1942 first time, it was taken by the understudies of Texas Tech University. In 1943 it was taken by the Michigan State University and broke down by an American instructive Psychologist named Paul Dressel.
During the year 1948, this test wound up well known among the different universities and taken by 500 schools and their 45000 understudies.
In January 1948 the administration of this test was given to the Educational Testing administration and this undertaking has stayed in the hold of Carnegie establishment and every one of the strategies and laws are presently settled by a similar establishment.
The two types of GRE tests are: GRE General Test and GRE Subject Test.
GRE General Test
Understudies looking for affirmation in MS courses in various fields in the US and different nations show up for GRE General Test. Through this test, an up-and-comer is assessed on his scientific composition aptitudes, quantitative capacity, and verbal thinking abilities.
They are directed around the year, and up-and-comers can show up for the general test according to their benefit. Greater part of the understudies choose this test as a larger part of the colleges world over acknowledge this test.
GRE Subject Test
The GRE Subject Test assesses the competitors’ capacity on a specific subject. The subject tests are led for the accompanying regions: Mathematics, Literature (English), Physics and Psychology, Biology, Chemistry, and Biochemistry (Cell and Molecular Biology).
For the most part, this test is required for getting confirmation in particular courses. Aside from this, this test is directed just thrice a year in April, September, and October and is accessible just in paper conveyed group.
The computer based GRE General Test comprises of six areas.The principal segment is consistently the analytical writing section including independently coordinated issue and ion assignments.
The following five segments comprise of two verbal reasoning section, two quantitative reasoning sections, and either an exploratory or research segment. These five segments may happen in any request. The test area does not check towards the last score but rather isn’t recognized from the scored areas.
The paper-based GRE General Test likewise comprises of six segments. The analytical writing section is part up into two areas, one segment for each issue and argument task.
The following four areas comprise of two verbal and two quantitative segments in fluctuating request. There is no test segment on the paper-based test. This form is just accessible in zones where the PC based variant is inaccessible.
|GRE Sections||Computer based||Paper based|
|No of sections||Duration||No of sections||Duration||No of sections|
|Analytical writing||60 minutes||2 sections, 2 tasks||60 minutes||1 section, 2 tasks|
|Verbal Reasoning||70 minutes||2 sections, 50 questions||60 minutes||2 sections, 40 questions|
|Quantitative reasoning||80 minutes||2 sections, 50 questions||70 minutes||2 sections, 40 questions|
#2 Full form of (GRE) Green Renewable Energy
Green renewable energy comes from natural sources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, plants, algae and geothermal heat. These energy resources are renewable, which means they’re naturally replenished. In contrast, fossil fuels are limited resources that that take a large number of years to create and will keep on decreasing with use.
Green renewable energy sources additionally have a much smaller impact on the environment than non-renewable energy sources, which produce toxins such as greenhouse gases as a by-product, contributing to climate change. Accessing petroleum products normally requires either mining or drilling deep into the earth, regularly in naturally delicate areas.
Green energy, however, utilizes energy sources that are promptly available all through the world, incorporating into country and remote regions that don’t otherwise have access to electricity.
Advances in renewable energy technologies have lowered the cost of solar panels, wind turbines and other sources ofenvironmentally friendly green energy, putting the capacity to deliver power in the hands of the general population instead of those of oil, gas, coal and service organizations.
The most common types of green renewable energy:
- Solar power – The most predominant type of renewable energy, sun powered power is commonly created utilizing photovoltaic cells, which capture sunlight and transform it into power. Solar energy is used in heating buildings and water, providing natural light and cooking food. Solar technologies have grown to be less expensive enough to power everything from small hand-held gadgets to whole neighborhoods.
- Wind power – Wind current on the world’s surface can be utilized to drive turbines, with more grounded breezes producing more energy. High-elevation locales and territories simply offshore have a tendency to provide the niceconditions for capturing the strongest winds.
- Hydropower – Also referred to as hydroelectric power, hydropower is produced by the Earth’s water cycle, including evaporation, precipitation, tides and the power of water going through a dam. Hydropower relies upon high precipitation levels to create huge amount of energy.
- Geothermal energy – Just under the earth’s crust are huge amounts of thermal energy, which starts from both the first development of the planet and the radioactive rot of minerals. Geothermal energy as natural aquifers has been used by humans for centuries for bathing, and now it’s being used to generate electricity.
- Biomass – Organicsubstances like wood waste, sawdust and ignitable agricultural wastes can be transformed into energy with far fewer greenhouse gasoline emissions than petroleum-based gasoline sources. That’s because these materials, acknowledged as biomass, contain saved strength from the sun.
- Biofuels – Rather than burning biomass to produce energy, in some cases these inexhaustible natural materials are changed into fuel.Examples include ethanol and biodiesel.
- The indispensable partner in the fight against climate change: Renewables do not emit greenhouse gases in energy generation processes, making them the cleanest, most workable solution to protect the environment and its constituents.
- Inexhaustible: Compared to conventional energy sources, for example, coal, gas, oil and nuclear – reserves of which are limited – green energiesare just as available as the sun from which they start and adjust to natural cycles, henceforth their name “renewables”. This makes them an essential component in a sustainable energy system.
- Reducing energy dependence: The indigenous idea of clean sources gives nearby economies a favorable position and carries significance to the expression “energy independence”. Dependence on fossil fuel imports results in subordination to the economic and political short-term goals of the supplier country, which can compromise the security of energy supply. The renewable resources – whether that be the wind, sun, water or organic material – are available for producing energy sustainably.
- Increasingly competitive: The main renewable energy sources– for example, wind and sun based photovoltaic– are definitely reducing their costs, such that they are fully competitive with conventional sources in a growing number of locations. Economies of scale and development are now bringing about sustainable power sources turning into the most feasible arrangement, earth as well as financially, for driving the world.
- Green renewable energy won’t run out: Renewable energy technologies use resources direct from the environment to generate power. Green renewable energy sources include sunshine, wind, tides, and biomass. Renewable resources won’t run out, which can’t be said for some kinds of petroleum products.
- Higher upfront cost:While we can save money by using renewable energy, the technologies are typically more expensive upfront than traditional energy generators.
- Intermittency:Though renewable energy resources are available around the world, many of these resources aren’t available 24/7, year-round. Some days may be windier than others, the sun doesn’t shine at night, and droughts may occur for periods of time. There can be unpredictable weather events that disrupt these technologies. Fossil fuels are not intermittent and can be turned on or off at any given time.
- Storage capabilities:There’s a high need for energy storage because of the intermittency of some renewable energy sources. While there are storage technologies available today, they can be costly, particularly for enormous scale sustainable power source plants.
#3 Full form of (GRE)= Great River Energy
Great River Energy is a nonprofit cooperative which provides wholesale power to more than 650,000 part buyers, or around 1.7 million individuals, through 28 member distribution cooperatives in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Great River Energy claims or co-possesses in excess of 100 energy transmission substations in the locale. The company’s system includes more than 500 distribution substations.
Great River Energy is an electrictransmission and technology cooperative in the U.S. province of Minnesota; it is the state’s second biggest electric utility, based on generating capacity, and the fifth largest generation and transmission agreeable in the U.S. regarding resources .Great River Energy was formed in 1999 when Cooperative Power Association and United Power Association combined.
Great River Energy’s headquarters are situated in Maple Grove, Minnesota. The office incorporates a 160-foot-tall (49 m), 200 kilowatt NEG Micon M700 wind turbine (visible from Interstate 94), and a 72-kilowatt sun powered cluster at ground level and on the rooftop.
The building uses large amount of energy of similar-sized buildings developed using certain standard construction technologies, 40 percent less power for lighting and 90 percent less water than standard corporategrounds.
The organization has involved the Maple Grove facility since April 2008. In October 2008, the headquarters building became the first building in Minnesota to attain LEED Platinum certification.
End use members
The end use members of Great River Energy are residential and commercial. 57 percent of GRE end use member energy sales are residential, 21 percent of them are large commercial and 16 percent of them are small commercial.
Great River Energy’s transmission system is part of an overall local transmission grid, worked on an organized premise as per the Minnesota Electric Transmission Planning gathering.
Regional grid operations were expanded in 2002 with the formation of the MISO, an independent, nonprofit organization that supports the reliable operation of the transmission system in 15 U.S. states and the Canadian province of Manitoba.
MISO acts as the Regional Transmission Organization, overseeing the operations, planning, and improvements of the wholesale bulk electric transmission system in the upper Midwest. With its administration of a centralized energy market, Midwest ISO’s stated goal is to ensure that the growing demand for power is served in an efficient and effective manner.
Coal Creek Station: It is located south of Dakota Generating electricity since 1979; this station is North Dakotas largest, producing 1,100 megawatts of electricity, & using 7.5 to 8.0 million tons of beneficiated lignite per year, which it gets from the Falkirk Mine located near the plant
Spiritwood Station – It is located near Spiritwood, North Dakotaand was completed in 2012. Went commercial on 11-1-2014. It is a combined heat and power plant which produces steam available to be purchased to nearby enterprises and power.
Stanton Station – It is located near Dakota. Generating electricity since 1966, it produces 189 megawatts of electricity, and uses 850,000 tons of sub-bituminous coal from the Powder River Basin per year. Stanton Station was decommissioned May 2017.
Natural Gas / Oil Peaking Plants
Cambridge Station – It is located in Cambridge, Minnesota.
Lakefield Junction Station –It is located in Trimont, Minnesota.
Pleasant Valley Station – It is located in Dexter, Minnesota.
Elk River Peaking Station – It is located in Elk River, Minnesota.
Great River Energy has 650 kilowatts of solar energy installations, including a 250 kW solar array at its Maple Grove, Minn. headquarters facility. The exhibit incorporates a blend of advances to help decide how sunlight based energy can be coordinated into agreeable frameworks.
Whenever required, Great River Energy additionally buys power from other electric sources through its participation in the Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, known as the Midcontinent Independent System Operator.
In 2010, Great River Energy led a group that was awarded with Power Engineering magazine’s 2010 Coal-Fired Project of the Year. The project, “Dry Fining,” created a new technology for coal-firing power plants that improves fuel quality, decreases volatile gas emissions, and decreases a plant’s working costs and support costs.
#4 Full form of (GRE)= Gradient echo
A gradient echo sequence is the base of numerous significant derived sequences, for example, echo-planar imaging and SSFP stationary sequences. It allows to obtain very short repetition times (TR), and in this manner to acquire images in a short time. It is also called Gradient Recalled Echo (GRE).
The gradient echo sequence is described by a single excitation pursued by a gradient connected along the reading axis called the dephasing gradient. This gradient alters the spin phase in a spatially needy way, so that at the end of the gradient the signal will be totally dropped on the grounds because the coherence between the spins will be completely destroyed.
The Gradient Echo Process
Transverse magnetization is present only when an adequate amount of protons are turning in-stage in the transverse plane. As we have seen, the decay (relaxation) of transverse magnetization is the after effect of proton dephasing. We also recall that an RF signal is being created whenever there is transverse magnetization and the intensity of the signal is proportional to the level of magnetization.
With the spin echo technique we use an RF pulse to rephase the protons after they have been dephased by inherent magnetic field inhomogeneities and susceptibility effects within the tissue voxel. With the gradient echo technique the protons are first dephased, deliberately, by turning on a gradient and afterward rephased by switching the direction of the gradient.
A gradient echo can only be made when transverse magnetization is present. This can be either during the free induction decay (FID) period or during a spin echo event. The gradient echo is being made during the FID.
The detail process
First, transverse magnetization is produced by the excitation pulse. It promptly starts to decay (the FID process) as a result of the magnetic field in homogeneities within each individual voxel. The rate of decay is related to the value of T2*.
A short time after the excitation pulse a gradient is applied, which produces a very rapid dephasing of the protons and reduction in the transverse magnetization. This occurs because a gradient is a forced inhomogeneity in the magnetic field. The next step is to reverse the direction of the applied gradient. Even though this is still an inhomogeneity in the magnetic field, it is in the opposite direction.
This then causes the protons to rephase and produce an echo event. As the protons rephase, the transverse magnetization will reappear and rise to a value determined by the FID process. The gradient echo event is a rather well-characterized peak in the transverse magnetization and this, thusly, produces a discrete RF signal.
The TE (short echo time) is determined by adjusting the time interval between the excitation pulse and the gradients that produce the echo event. TE values for gradient echo are commonly a shorter than for spin echo, particularly when the gradient echo is produced during the FID.
Classification of GRE sequence
It can be classified into two kinds depending on what is done with the residual transverse magnetization.
Spoiled or incoherent GRE sequence: If the residual TM (Transverse Magnetization) is destroyed by RF pulse or gradient such that it will not interfere with next TR (long repetition time).
Steady state or coherent GRE sequences:If the residual TM is not destroyed and is refocused such that after a few TRs steady magnitude of LM(longitudinal magnetization) and TM is reached.
Depending on what signal is used to form the images, SS sequences are divided into 3 types:Post excitation Refocused Sequences, Pre excitation refocused sequences and fully refocused sequences.
- GRE with “FID” refocusing
- GRE with “Echo” refocusing
- GRE with combined “FID” and “Echo” refocusing
The primary advantage of the gradient echo methods over the spin echo methods is that the gradient echo methods perform quicker image acquisitions. Gradient echo methods are commonly viewed as among the quicker imaging methods. Gradient echo are used in some of the angiographic applications because gradient echo generally produces bright blood.
One limitation of the gradient echo methods is that they don’t produce good T2-weighted images. However,the limitation can be overcome by combining the gradient and spin echo methods.