full form of HIV: – Full form of HIV is HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES. Human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) are two species of Lent virus (a retrovirus subgroup) that cause HIV infection and a syndrome of immunodeficiency (AIDS) that has been obtained over time.
AIDS is a human condition in which progressive immune system failure enables opportunistic life-threatening infections and cancers to flourish. Depending on the HIV subtype, the average survival time after HIV infection is predicted to be 9 to 11 years without therapy.
In most instances, HIV is a sexually transmitted infection that happens when blood, pre-ejaculate, semen, and vaginal fluids are contacted or transferred. Research has shown (for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples) that if the HIV-positive partner has a consistently undetectable viral load, HIV cannot be transmitted through condom less sexual intercourse.
During pregnancy, through exposure to blood or vaginal fluid, and through breast milk, non-sexual transmission may happen from an infected mom to her baby. Within these body fluids, HIV is present in infected immune cells as both free virus particles and virus. HIV infects essential immune cells such as help T cells (specifically CD4 + T cells), macrophages, and dendrites cells in the human immune system. HIV infection leads to low concentrations of CD4 + T cells through a number of processes, including pyroptosis of abortively infected T cells, apoptosis of non-infected bystander cells, direct viral killing of infected cells, and CD8 + cytotoxic lymphocyte killing of infected CD4 + T cells.
Origin of HIV
Scientists in Central Africa recognized a form of chimpanzee as the cause of human HIV infection. They think that the chimpanzee version of the immunodeficiency virus (known as the simian immunodeficiency virus or SIV) was most probably transferred to humans and mutated to HIV when humans hunted these meat chimpanzees and came into touch with their infected blood.
Studies indicate that HIV could have jumped as far back as the early 1800s from apes to humans. The virus spread slowly throughout Africa and subsequently to other areas of the globe over centuries. We understand that since at least the mid to late 1970s, the virus has existed in the United States. See the HIV and AIDS Timeline of CDC for more information on the spread of HIV in the United States and the reaction of CDC to the epidemic.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic condition triggered by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that is possibly life threatening. HIV interferes with your body’s capacity to combat the disease-causing organisms by damaging your immune system.
HIV is an infection with sexual transmission (STI). It may also spread during pregnancy, childbirth or breast-feeding through contact with infected blood or from mom to kid. It may take years before HIV weakens your immune system to the point where you have AIDS without medication. There is no cure for HIV / AIDS, but drugs can dramatically slow the disease’s development. In many developed nations, these drugs have decreased fatalities from AIDS.
Causes of HIV
HIV causes are triggered by a virus. It can spread during pregnancy, childbirth or breast-feeding through sexual contact or blood, or from mom to kid.
How does HIV transform into AIDS?
HIV destroys cells of CD4 T — white blood cells that play a significant role in assisting your body fight illness. The weaker your immune system becomes, the less CD4 T cells you have. For years, you can have an HIV infection before it becomes AIDS. AIDS is diagnosed when the number of CD4 T cells drops below 200 or when you have a complication that defines AIDS.
How HIV spreads?
Infected blood, semen, or vaginal secretions must enter your body in order to become infected with HIV. In several respects, this can occur: by having sex. You may become infected with an infected partner whose blood, semen, or vaginal secretions enter your body if you have vaginal, anal, or oral sex.
The virus can enter your body through mouth sores or tiny tears that occur during sexual activity in the rectum or vagina. From blood transfusions. In some cases, blood transfusions can transmit the virus. The blood supply of HIV antibodies is now screened by American clinics and blood banks, so this danger is very low. Through sharing needles.
Sharing intravenous contaminated drug paraphernalia (needles and syringes) brings you at elevated danger for HIV and other infectious diseases like hepatitis. During pregnancy or delivery or breastfeeding. Infected mothers can infect their children with the virus. HIV-positive mothers who receive infection therapy during pregnancy may reduce their babies ‘ danger considerably.
It primarily impacted males who had sex with males when HIV/AIDS first appeared in the United States. It is now apparent, though, that HIV is also spreading through heterosexual sex. It is possible to infect anyone of any era, ethnicity, sex or sexual orientation. You are at the highest danger of HIV/AIDS, however, if you:
Have unprotected sex: Every time you have sex, use a fresh latex or polyurethane condom. Anal sex is more hazardous than vaginal sex. If you have various sexual partners, your danger of HIV rises.
Have an STI: Many STIs on your genitals generate open sores. These sores function as doors for the entry of HIV into your body.
Use intravenous medicines: intravenous drug users often share needles and syringes. This exposes them to droplets of blood from other people.
Are an uncircumcised person: studies indicate that absence of circumcision improves the danger of HIV transmission by heterosexuality.
Infection that can cause by HIV:
Tuberculosis (TB): TB is the most prevalent opportunistic HIV-related infection in resource-limited countries. It is a major cause of death among AIDS individuals.
Cytomegalovirus: In body fluids such as saliva, blood, urine, semen, and breast milk, this prevalent herpes virus is transmitted. The virus is inactivated by a good immune system and it stays dormant in your body. The virus resurfaces when your immune system weakens— causing harm to your eyes, digestive tract, lungs, or other bodies.
Candidacies: Candidacies is a prevalent infection associated with HIV. It creates inflammation on your mouth, tongue, esophagus, or vagina mucous membranes and a dense, white layer.
Cryptococcus meningitis: Meningitis is a membrane and fluid inflammation that surrounds your brain and spinal cord (meninges). Cryptococcal meningitis is a prevalent HIV-related infection of the central nervous system triggered by a soil-related fungus.
Toxoplasmosis: Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite spread mainly by cats, causes this possibly lethal infection. Infected cats move in their stools through the parasites, which can then spread to other livestock and humans. When it spreads to the brain, seizures happen.
Cryptosporidiosis: An intestinal parasite frequently found in livestock causes this infection. You get it when you consume or drink food or water that is contaminated. In individuals with AIDS, the parasite develops in your intestines and bile ducts, resulting in serious, chronic diarrhea.
Kaposi’s sarcoma: A blood vessel wall tumor, this cancer is uncommon in individuals who are not infected with HIV but are prevalent in individuals who are HIV-positive. It generally appears on the skin and mouth as pink, red or purple lesions. The lesions may appear dark brown or black in individuals with darker skin. Kaposi’s sarcoma, including the digestive tract and lungs, can also influence the internal organs.
Lymphoma: In the white blood cells this disease begins. The most prevalent early sign is painless swelling of the throat, armpit, or groin lymph nodes.
Wasting syndrome: The amount of instances of waste syndrome has been decreased by aggressive therapy methods, but it still impacts many individuals with AIDS. It is described as a body weight loss of at least 10%, often accompanied by diarrhea, chronic weakness, and fever.
Neurological complications: while AIDS does not appear to infect the nerve cells, it may trigger neurological symptoms such as confusion, forgetfulness, depression, anxiety, and walking difficulty. AIDS dementia complex is one of the most prevalent neurological complications, resulting in behavioral modifications and decreased mental functioning.
Kidney illness: HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a small filter inflammation in your kidneys that removes surplus fluid and waste from your blood and passes it to your urine. It influences blacks or Hispanics most often. The antiretroviral therapy should start with anyone with this complication.
Step of HIV transmission or stages
When individuals get HIV and are not treated, they typically progress through three disease phases. HIV treatment medicine, known as antiretroviral therapy (ART), if taken as prescribed, helps individuals at all phases of the disease.
Treatment may slow or impede development from phase to stage. In addition, individuals with HIV who take HIV medicine as prescribed and receive and maintain an undetectable viral load do not have the danger of transmitting HIV through sex to an HIV-negative partner.
People may experience a flu-like disease within 2 to 4 weeks of HIV infection, which may last for a few weeks. They have a big quantity of virus in their blood and are very contagious when individuals have acute HIV infection. But individuals with acute infection are often unaware of being infected because they may not immediately or at all feel sick.
You need an antigen / antibody test or a nucleic acid (NAT) test to know if someone has an acute infection. If you believe you’ve been exposed to HIV through sex or drug use and you have flu-like symptoms, seek medical attention and ask for an acute infection diagnosis exam. It is also called Acute HIV infection stage.
Sometimes this period is called asymptomatic infection with HIV or chronic infection with HIV. HIV is still active during this stage, but it reproduces at very low concentrations. People during this moment may not have any symptoms or become sick.
This duration may last a decade or longer for individuals who do not take medicine to treat HIV, but some may advance quicker through this stage. People who take medicine as prescribed for the treatment of HIV (ART) may be at this point for several centuries. It is essential to remember that during this stage individuals are still able to communicate HIV to others.
However, individuals taking HIV medicine as prescribed and receiving and maintaining an undetectable viral load (or staying virally suppressed) do not efficiently risk transmitting HIV to their HIV-negative sexual partners. The viral load of a person begins to go up at the end of this stage and the CD4 cell count begins to go down. As this occurs, the individual may start having symptoms as the body’s virus concentrations rise and the individual moves to Stage 3.
AIDS is the most serious HIV infection stage. People with AIDS have immune systems that are so badly harmed that they are getting a growing amount of serious diseases, called opportunistic diseases. Typically, individuals with AIDS survive around 3 years without therapy.
Chills, fever, sweats, swollen lymph glands, weakness, and weight loss are common symptoms of AIDS. People are diagnosed with AIDS when their number of CD4 cells falls below 200 cells / mm or when they develop some opportunistic diseases. People with AIDS can be very infectious and have a elevated viral load.
Misconception and facts about HIV
Many misconceptions that are detrimental and stigmatizing to individuals with the virus are circulating about HIV.
The following cannot transmit the virus:
- Shaking hands
- Touching unbroken skin
- Using the same toilet
- Sharing towels
- Sharing cutlery
- The saliva, tears, feces, and urine of a person with HIV
There is no vaccine and no cure for AIDS to stop HIV infection. But you can prevent infection from protecting yourself and others. In order to help avoid HIV spread:
Use a fresh condom whenever you have intercourse: every time you have anal or vaginal sex, use a fresh condom. A female condom may be used by women. Make sure that it is water-based when using lubricant. Oil-based lubricants can weaken and break condoms. Use an unlubricated, cut-open condom or dental dam during oral sex— a piece of medical latex.
Consider the drug Truvada: The drug emtricitabine-tenofovir (Truvada) in individuals at very elevated risk may decrease the likelihood of sexually transmitted HIV infection. Every day you need to take it. It does not deter other STIs, so you are still going to have to exercise safe sex. Before starting treatment, if you have hepatitis B, an infectious illness or liver specialist should evaluate you. Before you take this drug, you will need a blood test to verify your kidney function.
If you have HIV, tell your sexual partners: Inform all your present and previous sexual partners that you are HIV-positive. They are going to have to be tested.
Use a clean needle: Make sure it’s sterile and don’t share it if you use a needle to inject drugs. Take benefit of your community’s needle-exchange programs and consider seeking assistance with your drug use.
If you are pregnant, receive immediate medical care: If you are HIV-positive, you may pass the infection on to your child. But if you are treated during pregnancy, you can considerably reduce the danger of your baby.
Consider masculine circumcision: There is proof that male circumcision can help decrease the likelihood of a man becoming infected with HIV.
Condition HIV in context of Nepal
Nepal’s first HIV / AIDS cases were recorded in 1988 and the disease were transmitted mainly through intravenous use of drugs and unprotected sex. Among the two, the HIV epidemic is largely attributed to sexual transmission, which accounts for more than 85% of the total new HIV infections.
According to available data, the number of new infections started in 1996, coinciding with the outbreak of civil unrest, has increased sharply. In the adult population, the infection rate of HIV / AIDS in Nepal is estimated to be below the 1% limit deemed “generalized and serious.”
The incidence level, however, masks a focused epidemic among at-risk communities such as female sex employees (FSWs), male sex workers (MSWs), injecting drug users (IDUs), male sex employees (MSM), transgender groups (TG), migrants and male labor migrants (MLMs), as well as their spouses.
It has also been shown that cultural variables play an important part in the spread of HIV and AIDS in Nepal. Some of these cultural variables, like denial, stigma, and discrimination that surround HIV and AIDS, are linked to social tabuses that create difficulties for open debates about sex and sexual habits. Other variables such as poverty, low educational and literacy rates, political instability coupled with gender inequality challenge the duties.
HIV is described by an adult (age 15-49) HIV incidence of 0.3 percent in 2011 as a focused epidemic in Nepal. Nepal is home to about 50,200 individuals residing with HIV, and four out of every five diseases happened through sexual transmission, according to latest estimates.
The main populations at greater risk for HIV are people who inject drugs, men who have sex with males, women sex workers, and seasonal labor migrants (moving to elevated HIV prevalence regions in India). USAID’s initiatives to decrease HIV in Nepal started in 1993 and have since made a major contribution to the domestic HIV reaction of the Government of Nepal.
These contributions led to the growth of epidemic-specific programs for important communities and individuals living with HIV and their relatives in Nepal. USAID’s initiatives have enhanced access to prevention, care, support and therapy facilities related to sexually transmitted diseases in Nepal.
In latest years, new infections have declined considerably owing to the application of evidence-based, focused prevention measures among important population groups. Despite ongoing attempts to combat stigma and discrimination, however, obstacles to open access to data and services have remained significant.