#1 Full form of NGO= Non-governmental organization
Non-governmental organization (NGO) or non-profit organization (NPO) is a group, organization, non-profit institution or non-profit entrepreneurial initiative of individuals, activists, volunteers and social workers. NGO or ONL is a voluntary social organization of social activists, groups of people, communities, people, volunteers, civilians and citizens who work or are associated for social well-being and social development.
If a group of people or a community wants to work for social change and on certain issues, it can function as an NGO without registering. The NGO can be registered or cannot be registered.
The NGO is recognized in its registered form and can obtain all types of support, including financial support when registering with government registration authorities. NGOs can be directed, managed and managed by members and others who are associated with it and work for social and ethical purposes.
What is an NGO
let’s now discuss what actually an NGO is. An NGO as an association includes groups and institutions with primary humanitarian and cooperative objectives rather than commercial objectives that are completely or largely independent of the government. NGOs are private agencies to support local, national and international development by organized indigenous groups.
The NGO works to improve and elevate the community of the socioeconomically and politically weaker community to bring it to the mainstream of society and move society towards a more improved and developed lifestyle and life.
As a group and community organization, an NGO provides and fulfils certain services, development-oriented tasks and works with objectives and goals to achieve the necessary positive changes in societies, communities, areas and situations.
The NGO helps and supports people for their legal rights and powers in society. This is done in a legal and democratic way and with a scheme of people’s participation to satisfy the common interest. The NGO is known and works for the participation of people in various issues and activities required to support and improve the circumstances, conditions and situations.
The NGO is managed by resources, funds and other desirable support from the government, funding agencies, support agencies, support communities, with the support and help of business groups and individuals. NGOs can get help managing a variety of sources, including membership fees, private donations, grants, sales of goods and services.
The NGO as a non-profit organization in nature does not work for commercial or commercial purposes, but the profits from the sale of goods and services can be used for the purposes and objectives. NGO is a non-profit organization, non-profit and non-profit organization, so it is also known and identified as a non-profit organization (ONP). Mission, vision, goals and objectives of NGOs are to improve human life and civilization.
NGOs are usually funded by donations, but some avoid formal financing altogether and are mainly run by volunteers. NGOs are groups of very different organizations that participate in a wide range of activities and take different forms in different parts of the world.
Since the end of World War II, NGOs have played an increasingly important role in international development , particularly in the areas of humanitarian assistance and poverty reduction. The number of NGOs in the world is estimated at 10 million. In 2008, Russia had around 277,000 NGOs. It is estimated that in 2009 India had around 2 million NGOs, a little more than an NGO for 600 Indians, and many times the number of primary schools and primary health centres in India.
The term ‘NGO’ is not always used consistently. Political parties and trade unions are considered non-governmental organizations only in some countries. There are many different classifications of the NGOs in use. The orientation of an NGO refers to the type of activity it carries out. These activities could include human rights, the environment, health improvement or development work.
The operational level of an NGO indicates the scale at which an organization works, such as local, regional, national or international. The term “nongovernmental organization” was coined for the first time in 1945, when the United Nations (UN) internationally.Later the term was used more widely.
Today, according to the United Nations, any type of private organization independent of government control can be called an “NGO”, provided it is non-profit, not prevention, [necessary clarification] but not simply an opposition political party. .
A feature shared by these different organizations is that their non-profit status means that they are not hampered by short-term financial goals. As a result, they can focus on problems that occur over longer time horizons, such as climate change, the prevention of malaria or the global ban on landmines.
types of NGOs
Types of NGOs / RGs (organizations related to government) can be understood by their orientation and level of functioning.
The orientation of charity often involves a top-down effort with low participation or contributions from beneficiaries. It includes NGOs with activities to meet the needs of disadvantaged groups. NGO and people are expected to participate in its implementation and reception of the service.
Participatory orientation is characterized by self-help projects in which local populations are particularly involved in the realization of a project that provides money, tools, land, materials, work, etc.
In the classic community development project, participation begins with the definition of need and continues the planning and execution phases. The goal of empowerment is to help poor people develop a clearer understanding of the social, political and economic factors that influence their lives and strengthen their awareness of their potential power to control their lives. There is a maximum participation of the beneficiaries with NGOs that act as facilitators.
By operation level
Community based organizations (CBOs) derive from the same initiatives as people. They can be responsible for raising awareness of the urban poor, helping them understand their rights to access the necessary services and providing these services.
Organizations throughout the city include organizations such as chambers of commerce and industry, business coalitions, ethnic or educational groups and community organizations associations. State NGOs include organizations, associations and groups at the state level.
Some state NGOs also work under the direction of national and international NGOs. National NGOs include national organizations such as YMCA / YWCA, professional associations and similar groups. Some have state and municipal branches and help local NGOs. International NGOs range from secular agencies like Save the Children to groups motivated by religion.
They can be responsible for financing local NGOs, institutions and projects and for carrying out projects. In addition to “NGOs”, there are alternative or overlapping terms that include: organization of the third sector (OTS), non-profit organization (ONP), voluntary organization (OV), civil society organization (CSO), basic organization ( GO)), organization of social movements (SMO), private voluntary organization (PVO), self-help organization (SHO) and non-state actors (NSA).
There are numerous classifications of NGOs. The typology used by the World Bank divides them into Operational and Promotion.  In general, NGOs act as implementers, catalysts and partners. First of all, NGOs act as filmmakers, mobilizing resources to provide goods and services to people suffering from man-made disasters or natural disasters. Secondly, NGOs act as catalysts for driving change.
Finally, NGOs often act as partners with other organizations to address problems and address human needs more effectively. NGOs vary in their methods. Some act primarily as lobbyists, while others mainly conduct programs and activities. For example, an NGO like Oxfam, worried about alleviating poverty, can provide people in need with equipment and skills to find food and clean water, while an NGO like the FFDA helps through research and documentation. human rights violations. and provides legal assistance to victims of human rights violations.
They mobilize financial, material and volunteer resources to create localized programs. They organize large-scale fundraising events and can turn to governments and organizations for grants or contracts to raise funds for projects.
Operational NGOs can be further categorized by splitting into aid and development oriented organizations; Depending on whether they emphasize the provision or participation of the service; whether they are religious or lay; And if they are more oriented to the public or private. The task of defining operational NGOs is the implementation of projects.
change of campaign The NGOs involved in the campaign seek to “implement a large-scale change promoted indirectly through the influence of the political system”. The NGOs involved in the campaign need an efficient and effective group of professional members who can keep their supporters informed and motivated.
They must plan and organize events and events that will maintain their cause in the media. They must maintain a vast network of informed supporters who can be mobilized for events that attract media attention and influence political change. The activity that defines the NGOs that participate in the campaign is to carry out demonstrations. Campaigning NGOs often address issues related to human rights, women’s rights and the rights of children.
The main purpose of a defence NGO is to defend or promote a specific cause. Contrary to the operational management of the project, these organizations generally seek to increase awareness, acceptance and knowledge through lobbying, press activities and activists.
Both operational and campaign.
It is not uncommon for NGOs to use both activities. Many times, operating NGOs will use campaign techniques if they continually face the same problems on the ground that could be solved through policy changes. At the same time, campaign NGOs, such as human rights organizations, often have programs that help individual victims who are trying to help through their advocacy work.
Non-governmental organizations need healthy relationships with the public to achieve their goals. Foundations and charities use sophisticated public relations campaigns to raise funds and use standard pressure techniques with governments.
Interested parties may be of political importance because of their ability to influence social and political results. In 2002, the World Association of Non-Governmental Organizations established a code of ethics. Project Management There is a growing awareness that management techniques are fundamental to the success of the project in non-governmental organizations.
In general, non-governmental organizations that are private have a community or environmental interest. They address various issues, such as religion, emergency aid or humanitarian issues.
Modification of the corporate structure
Modification of personnel Some NGOs are highly professional and depend mainly on paid staff. Others are based on voluntary work and are less formalized. Not all people who work for non-governmental organizations are volunteers.
Many NGOs are associated with the use of international staff working in “developing” countries, but there are many NGOs both in the North and in the South that depend on local employees or volunteers. There is some controversy about whether expatriates should be sent to developing countries.
Often, this type of staff is used to satisfy a donor who wants to see the project backed by someone from an industrialized country. However, the country to which they are sent and local skills are often underestimated The NGO sector is an essential employer in numerical terms. For example, by the end of 1995, CONCERN around the world, an international NGO working against poverty, employs 174 expatriates and little else. 5,000 employees working in ten developing countries in Africa and Asia, and in Haiti.
If NGOs are small or large, several NGOs need budgets to work. The amount of money that each requires varies according to multiple factors, including the size of the transaction and the scope of services provided. Unlike small NGOs, large NGOs can have annual budgets of hundreds of millions or trillions of dollars. For example, the budget of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) exceeded USD 540 million in 1999.
Funding such large budgets requires major fundraising efforts by the majority of NGOs. Although the term “non-governmental organization” implies independence from governments, many NGOs rely heavily on governments for their funding. The British government and the EU have donated a quarter of the US $ 162 million in 1998 to revenue from the Oxfam famine association. The Christian aid and development organization World Vision United States collected assets worth US $ 55 million in 1998 from the US government.
The government funding of NGOs is controversial becausecivil society had the right and the obligation to respond with acts of help and solidarity for people in need or subject to repression or to the request of the forces that control them, regardless of what the governments concerned think about the issue “. Some NGOs, such as Greenpeace, do not accept funds from governments or intergovernmental organizations.
Modification of general expenses
General expenses are the amount of money spent in the management of an NGO instead of projects. This includes office expenses, salaries, banking and accounting costs. That percentage of the total budget spent on overhead costs is often used to judge an NGO with less than 4% considered good.
The World Association of Non-Governmental Organizations states that, ideally, more than 86% should be spent on programs (less than 20% for general expenses. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has specific guidelines on the amount of overhead that can be allocated to receive funds based on how the money should be spent on overhead that often must be less than 5 to 7% .
While the World Bank generally allows 37%. A high percentage of overheads for total spending can make it difficult to create funds. High overhead costs can also generate criticism, while some say that some NGOs with high overhead costs are managed simply to help the people who work for them. While overall costs may be a legitimate concern, the sole focus on them may be counterproductive.
Research published by the Urban Institute and the Center for Social Innovation at Stanford University has demonstrated how rating agencies create incentives for non-profits to reduce and conceal overall costs, which can effectively reduce organizational effectiveness. of the organizations. Hungry for the infrastructure they need to deliver services effectively.
A meaningful rating system would provide, in addition to the financial data, a qualitative assessment of the transparency and governance of an organization:
(1) an evaluation of the effectiveness of the program;
(2) and an evaluation of the feedback mechanisms designed for donors and beneficiaries; and
(3) this rating system would also allow qualified organizations to respond to a rating conducted by a rating agency.
Monitoring and control
Change In the March 2000 report on the priorities of the reform of the United Nations, the former UN secretary general, Kofi Annan, wrote in favour of international humanitarian intervention, claiming that the international community has the “right to protect “the citizens of the world from ethnic cleansing, genocide and crimes against humanity.
Immediately after the report, the Canadian government launched the project Responsibility to Protect R2P, which describes the issue of humanitarian intervention. Although the R2P doctrine has wide applications, among the most controversial was the use of the Canadian R2P government to justify its intervention and support for the coup in Haiti.
Years later R2Pinternational authority between separate agencies”, has launched the responsibility of protect – Involve civil society (R2PCS). A collaboration between the GMA and the Canadian government, this project aims to bring NGOs in a safe step with the principles described in the original R2P project.
Governments in countries where an NGO works or is registered can request reports or other supervision and supervision. Lenders generally require reports and assessments, such information is not necessarily available to the public. There may also be supervisory associations and organizations that investigate and publish details on the actions of NGOs operating in particular geographical or program areas.
Logically, if companies collaborate with NGOs, NGOs will not work against companies. Greater collaboration between companies and NGOs creates intrinsic co-opting risks for the weaker partner, usually non-profit. In December 2007, the Department of Defence of the United States, Assistant Secretary of Defence (Health Affairs), S.
Ward Cass cells, established an International Health Division under the protection and preparation of the health force. Department of Defence Directive 3000.05, in 2005, requires the Department of Defence to consider activities that improve stability as an equal mission for combat.
In accordance with international law, the Department of Defence has necessarily developed a capacity to improve essential services in areas of conflict such as Iraq, where the usual lead agencies (Department of State and USAID) have difficulties to operate. Unlike the “co-optation” strategy described for companies, the OASD (HA) recognizes the neutrality of health as an essential service.
International Health cultivates collaborative relationships with NGOs, albeit at a distance, recognizing their traditional independence, competence and honest status as intermediaries. While the objectives of DoD and NGOs may seem inconsistent, DoD’s emphasis on stability and security to reduce and prevent conflicts suggests, in a careful analysis, important mutual interests.
Influence of NGOs on world affairs
Modification Services NGOs provide public goods and services that developing country governments cannot provide to society due to lack of resources. NGOs providing services can act as contractors or collaborate with democratized government agencies to reduce the costs associated with public goods.
Capacity building NGOs influence global issues differently, in the sense that the integration of responsibility measures in southern NGOs affects “culture, structure, projects and day-to-day operations”.
NGOs for defence and public education influence global issues in their ability to change behaviour through the use of ideas. Communication is the weapon of choice for defence and public education organizations to change people’s actions and behaviour. They construct messages strategically not only to shape behaviour, but also to socially mobilize communities to promote social, political or environmental changes.
The NGOs of the movement mobilize the public and coordinate large-scale collective activities to significantly advance the activist agenda. In the post-Cold War era, more NGOs based in developed countries have carried out international awareness-raising activities, been involved in social resistance at local and national level and have become relevant to changing national politics in the developing directives.
In cases where national governments are very sensitive to external influences through non-state actors, specialized NGOs have been able to find the right partners (e.g. China), create strong networks, identify a niche of policies and facilitate internal changes.