#1 Full form of NOS= Network Operating System
A network operating system (NOS) is a computer operating system shortly written as OS that is designed to support workstations, personal computers also called PC. The software behind an NOS allows multiple devices within a network to communicate and share resources with each other.
The composition of the hardware normally used by a NOS includes a series of personal computers, a printer, a server and a file server with a local network connecting them. The function of NOS is to provide basic network services and functions that support multiple requests arriving simultaneously in a multi-user environment.
Because previous versions of basic operating systems were not designed for use on a network, network operating systems emerged as a single-user computer solution.
Types of network operating systems
There are two basic types of network operating systems, peer-to-peer NOS and client / server NOS:
peer-to-peer network operating systems allow users to share network resources stored in a network. unique common and accessible network location. In this type of OS, all devices are treated equally in terms of the various functions done. Generally, peer-to-peer works best for small and medium-sized LANs and is cheaper to configure.
Client / server network operating systems plays a vital role as it provide users with access to various resources through a particular server. The client / server tends to be more expensive to implement and requires a lot of technical maintenance. An advantage for the client / server model is that the network is centrally controlled, which simplifies the integration of changes or additions to the technology.
Common characteristics of network operating systems
The functionalities of network operating systems are generally associated with the functionality of user administration, system maintenance and resource management. This includes: Basic support for operating systems such as protocol and processor support, hardware detection and multiprocessing. Share printers and applications. Common file system and database sharing. Network security functions such as user authentication and access control. Backup list and web services. Internet working.
Examples of network operating systems
True network operating systems are classified as software that improves the functionality of operating systems by providing additional network functionality. Some examples of these network operating systems and their service providers are: Artisoft LANtastic: this is a simple and intuitive NOS that is compatible with most PC operating systems. Banyan VINES: uses a client-server architecture to request specific functions and services.
Nov ell Net Ware: This was the first network operating system that was launched and is designed according to the XNS protocol architecture. Microsoft LAN Manager: works as a server application and was developed to work with the Microsoft operating system.
Now, most of the LAN Manager features are included in the Windows operating system itself. In addition, the most popular operating systems such as Windows, Unix, Linux and Mac include integrated network functions that may not require additional network services.
The short form of the network operating system is NOS. The network operating system that was developed for the first time is Nov ell Net ware. It was developed in 1983. An operating system that provides connectivity between a number of autonomous computers is called a network operating system.
A typical configuration for a network operating system is a collection of personal computers together with a common printer, server and file server for storing files, all connected by a local network.
Some of the well known features or specialties of the NOS termed as network operating system are:
- It allows multiple computers to connect so they can share data, files and hardware devices.
- Provide basic operating system functions, such as compatibility with processors, protocols, automatic hardware detection and compatibility with multiprocessing applications.
- Provide security features such as authentication, access restrictions and access control.
- Provide name and directory services. • Provide archiving, printing, web and backup services.
- Support for internal networks such as routing and WAN ports.
- User administration and support for login and logout, remote access; Management, administration and control tools for systems with graphical interfaces.
- Has clustering capabilities.
- It has inter networking features. Example: routing.
- In this, users can access them remotely.
- Also includes security features. Example: data authentication, requested data restrictions, user authorizations, etc. •
- You can also manage directory and name services.
- It also provides basic utilities for network administration, such as user access.
- It also gives priority to print jobs queued in the network.
- Detects new hardware every time it is added to the system.
Previously we just had an overview of the various types of network operating systems. Let’s have some details about them.
Peer-to-peer network operating systems allow users to share resources and files that reside on their computers and access resources shared on other computers. In a peer-to-peer network, all computers are considered equal; They all have the same privileges to use the resources available on the network.
Peer-to-peer networks are designed primarily for small and medium-sized local networks. Windows for group work is an example of the program that can function as a peer-to-peer network operating system.
The advantages of the peer-to-peer operating system (P2P) are as follows:
- There are fewer hardware requirements.
- No server is required.
- The installation process is natural.
The disadvantages of the peer-to-peer operating system (P2P) are as follows:
- It does not have a central location for the file, which means that different systems have different storage capacities.
- It has less security than the client-server model.
The client / server network operating systems allow the network to centralize functions and applications on one or more dedicated file servers. File servers become the heart of the system, providing access to resources and security. Workstations (clients) have access to the resources available on file servers.
The network operating system allows multiple users to share the same resources regardless of physical location at the same time. Each computer in the work group runs a stand-alone operating system; still cooperate to allow a variety of services that include file sharing, hardware resources sharing and running remote machines, etc.
Network operating systems are implementations of weakly coupled operating systems on freely coupled hardware. Network operating systems is the software that supports the use of a network of machines and provides users aware of using a set of computers, with features designed to facilitate the use of remote resources located on the network.
These resources are available as services and can be printers, processors, file systems or other devices. A typical example of such a system is a set of workstations connected via a LAN (Local Area Network). Each workstation has its own operating system.
Every user has his own workstation for exclusive use and collaborates to allow a variety of installations, such as file sharing, hardware resource sharing and remote machine operation, etc. A user can issue an access command to connect to another station. and you can also access a series of shared files managed by a workstation called / file server.
The advantages of the client-server operating system are the following:
- In this, the security of the machine is provided through the server.
- Here, the hardware can be easily connected to the system.
- Furthermore, the new technology can be easily integrated into the system.
- The central server is more stable in a client-server model.
- The hardware and operating system can be specialized.
- In this model, different machines can access the server remotely from different locations.
The disadvantages of the client-server operating system are the following:
- It seems to be expensive, since the purchase and operation of a server are convenient.
- Furthermore, here we must always depend on the central location for any type of operation, such as archiving, data access, etc.
- Requires regular maintenance.
- A daily update is required based on the requirement.
The operating system performs many functions, but the main objective of the operating system is to provide the interface between the user and the hardware. It provides the interface to work on the system by the user. The various functions performed by the operating system are explained below:
The operating system as a resource manager
The operating system also known as Resource Manager means that the operating system manages all the resources associated with the system: all resources, such as memory and processor, and all devices of the inputs connected to the system are known as computer resources. The system and the operating system will manage all system resources.
The operating system will identify at what time the CPU will perform what operation and at what time the memory is used by what programs. And what input device will respond to what the user means when the programs use the input and output devices. So this will handle all the resources that are connected to the computer system.
The operating system also controls all archiving operations, that is, how data or files will be stored on computers and how users can access files, etc. All operations that are responsible for storing and accessing files are determined by the system operating system. It also allows us to create files, create directories and read and write files and directory data, and even copy the contents of the files. and directories from one place to another.
Process management: the operating system also deals with process management means that all processes provided by the user or that are the system’s own processes are managed by the operating system. The operating system will create the priorities for the user and will start or stop the execution of the process and will also make the secondary process after dividing the large processes into small processes.
Memory management: the operating system also manages the memory of the computer system means supplying the memory to the process and also reallocating the memory of the process. It also defines that if a process is completed, this will displace the memory of the process.
Extended machine: the operating system also behaves like an extended machine means that the operating system also provides us with file sharing between different users, it also provides some graphical environments and also different languages for communications and also many complex operations such as l use of many hardware and software.
Mastermind: the operating system also performs many functions and, for these reasons, we can say that the operating system is a Mastermind. It provides booting without an operating system and facilitates the increase of the computer system’s logical memory using the physical memory of the computer system and also provides various types of formats such as NTFS and FAT file systems.
The operating system also checks for errors that have occurred in the program and also provides system recovery when the system is damaged. Media due to a hardware error, if the system does not work properly, this system restores the system and also corrects the system. And it also provides us with the backup installation. And the operating system also divides the large program into smaller programs, also called threads. And run those threads one by one.
History of network operating system (NOS)
As the history of the networking world is not so old so definitely the history of the network operating system popularly known as NOS must also not be so much older but let’s now know about the history of network operating system.
Historically, operating systems with network functionality have been described as network operating systems, as they have allowed personal computers (PCs) to participate in computer networks and share access to files and printers within a local network (LAN) .
This description of operating systems is now widely historical, since common operating systems include a network stack to support a client-server model. It also begins with the first microcomputer as explained below in detail about the history of first microcomputer.
The first microcomputer operating systems such as CP / M, DOS and classic Mac OS were designed for a user on a computer. Packet switching networks have been developed to share hardware resources, such as a central computer, a printer or a large and expensive hard drive.
With the provision of local network technology, two general approaches to managing the exchange of resources in networks emerged. Historically, a network operating system was an operating system for a computer that implemented network functionality.
Operating systems with a network stack allowed personal computers to participate in a client-server architecture where one server allows several clients to share resources, such as printers.
The first examples of client-server operating systems provided with fully integrated network functions are Novel Net Ware, which uses the Internets Exchange (IPX) network protocol, Windows Server 2003 and Banyan VINES that you used one variant of the Xerox Network Systems (XNS) protocols.
Peer-to-peer network operating systems were also developed, which used network capabilities to share resources and files located on personal computers. This system is not based on having a file server or centralized management source.
A peer-to-peer network states that all connected computers are the same; Everyone shares the same skills to use the resources available on the network. Examples of early peer-to-peer networked operating systems include Apple Share used for Apple product networking, LANtastic compatible with DOS, Microsoft Windows and OS / 2 computers, as well as Windows for Work groups used for Windows network connection peer-to-peer
Today, distributed processing and groupware applications have become the norm. Computer operating systems obviously include a network stack. During the 1980s, the need to integrate several computers with network capabilities grew and the number of network devices grew rapidly.
Partly because it allowed the interchangeability of multiple providers, the set of TCP / IP protocols was almost universally adopted in network architectures. Therefore, the computer operating systems and the firmware of the network devices needed to reliably support the TCP / IP protocols.
Today, virtually all personal computers are connected in one way or another to a network. Obviously, there is the largest network of all, the Internet, but there are also other types of smaller networks, such as LANs (local networks) and corporate networks. Network operating systems (NOS) act as guardians of data and applications on any type of network.The rise of local area networks (LAN) has paved the way for network operating systems.
Birth of networks
The concept of data communication between computers began in the late 1960s and early 1970s, when researchers began to develop a way to connect computers and exchange information through data packets. The following development of TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) and Ethernet has further favored the network concept.
Soon the need arose for operating systems not only to deal with the inter connectivity of networks, but also with the security aspect, according to a research document from the American University Computing History Museum.
Arrival of UNIX
During this period various operating systems were developed, such as the IBM MVS operating system, which was still dealing with SNA. However, the development of another operating system, called UNIX, has really opened the way for us everywhere. After a large and complex system development project called Multics failed to take off at Bell Labs in 1969, a group of Bell researchers, led by Ken Thompson and Dennis Richie, began working on a less ambitious but no less computing system powerful.
The relative simplicity of system design and the availability of its source code have made UNIX a favorite in the academic world and an element in many university computer networks. Many versions of UNIX were developed, but the version of Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), developed at the University of California-Berkeley, probably became the most popular, according to the Calcite-Lu-cent communications center.
Net ware impresses The 1970s also saw the rise of microchips, which marked the beginning of the microcomputer era and the use of personal computers in the consumer market.
Along with this revolution, a company called Nov ell has become a pioneer in network operating systems with the launch of its Wetware S-Net device. The product essentially transformed IBM XT, a popular PC at the time when it had a hard disk, into a file sharing system in which workstations connected the server in a star configuration (hence the name “S- Net “).
Nov ell has also developed its own NOS, also called Wetware, for the device. At that point, several competitors created their own NOS, but all were owners and worked only with their receptive hardware. Furthermore, these NOS were created on DOS (disk operating system), which was present on virtually all IBM PCs at the time, but was also a single-user system and a single activity.
List of advantages of computer networks
Offers a convenient exchange of resources.
This technology is very important, especially for large companies that have to produce huge amounts of resources to share with all people. Because all processes are computer-based, you can ensure that all resources are delivered to users as long as you have reliable connectivity.
Easily share files.
This is a central advantage of computer networks: it gives people access to easily share their files. This greatly helps to save time and effort, which you can then dedicate to other activities, both for personal and commercial purposes.
Provide the advantage of flexibility.
It is known that the computer network offers great flexibility, in the sense that it gives you the opportunity to explore everything about a certain type of software without compromising its functionality. You will have access to all the information you need.
The system is not expensive to use.
Generally, installing a network software would not cost much and, in general, they are reliable when it comes to helping you share information over a network or on the Web. Furthermore, it is not necessary to completely change the software, since it is necessary to install only updates, unless necessary. Cisco – Service provider Cisco message – Service provider Wi-Fi updates 6 More information
Increase your storage capacity.
Since you share resources and files with others, it is normal for you to be able to archive all the data and files sufficiently. With this technology, it is essential to have storage capacity capable of satisfying everything needed to keep activities and operations active.