Common abbreviation of PROM:- The full forms of PROM include the following:
The Prom, the best party of your life
In the United States, Canada and sometimes in Britain, the Prom (diminutive of the promenade) is a formal dance that is organized for high school students at the end of their graduation course.
It is a tradition deeply rooted in the country, which becomes a transcendental event in school life, remembered with affection throughout life. Sometimes students from the previous year attend, for which a ‘junior prom’ is celebrated that would be differentiated from the traditional ‘senior prom’.
During the celebration of the dance a king and a queen are chosen, who in the case of the juniors would become prince and princess. Other students can also be decorated as a ‘prom court’ to reward their participation in the sport and cultural activities of the school.
The boys usually wear black or white suits with colored ties, often rented in specialized establishments.
The girls wear ‘prom’ dresses, whose fashion remains practically the same since the 50s. Most are bought in specialized stores, keeping them for life as if they were a wedding dress. The tradition indicates that girls must wear a corset given by their partners.While they will receive a flower to wear on the lapel of their jackets.
Participants in the prom will be appointed by the school, indicating whether they are junior or senior. Or also accepting witnesses under 21 years of age, who may be exchange students or English courses in the United States.
Before the ceremony, the girls will comb their hair in a characteristic way, often attending the hairdressers in a group, as a social gathering. Couples will then meet in the parks, gardens or in their own homes, to undergo a photo shoot and then attend the ceremony together. For this, they will usually rent a limousine, whose expenses can be shared between several couples.
The venue for the prom is usually an assembly hall or the school gym itself, and sometimes even in party halls or wedding halls. During the party, a meal is served, while a music band, or more recently a DJ, will serve the soundtrack. After the prom, many schools continue the party with a less formal ‘post-prom’ in their own school facilities or in a nightclub.
#1 Premature Rupture Of Membrane
The premature rupture of membranes(PROM) is a disorder that occurs in pregnancy when the amniotic sac breaks more than one hour before the start of the work of childbirth. A PROM is prolonged when it occurs more than 18 hours before labor. Membrane rupture is premature when it occurs before the first period of labor.
The premature rupture of membranes is usually caused by a bacterial infection, by smoking or by a defect in the structure of the amniotic sac. In some cases, the rupture can heal spontaneously, but in most cases of PROM, labor begins in the first 48 hours. When this happens, it is necessary that the mother receives treatment to avoid a possible infection in the newborn.
Why does the PROM happen?
In most cases, the cause of the PROM is unknown. Some causes or risk factors can be:
- Infections of the uterus, cervix, or vagina
- Too much stretching of the amniotic sac (this can happen if there is too much fluid or more than one baby exerting pressure on the membranes).
- If you have had surgery or biopsies of the cervix.
- If you were pregnant before and had PROM
Most women who break source before labor do not have a risk factor.
How do I recognize if it happened to me?
The biggest sign to watch is the loss of fluid from the vagina. It can leak slowly or it can squirt. Some or all of the fluid is lost when the membranes break. The membranes can continue to lose.
Sometimes when the fluid slowly filters, women confuse it with urine. If you notice fluid leaks, use a feminine towel to absorb some of it. Observe it and smell it. The amniotic fluid normally has no color and does not smell like urine (it has a much sweeter smell).
If you think you have broken the source, call your health care provider immediately. It will be necessary to examine it as soon as possible.
What will happen?
In the hospital, simple tests can confirm that the source has broken. Your provider will look at your cervix (neck of the uterus) to see if it is soft and if it is beginning to dilate (opening).
If the doctor determines that you have a PROM,you will need to stay in the hospital until your baby is born.
AFTER 37 WEEKS
If your pregnancy has passed 37 weeks, your baby is ready to be born. You will need to go into labor soon. The longer it takes to start labor, the greater the chance of getting an infection.
You can wait for a short time to enter labor spontaneously or you can induce it (receive medication to start labor). Women who give birth within 24 hours after the source rupture are less likely to get an infection. So if your labor is not starting on its own, it may be safer to induce it.
BETWEEN WEEKS 34 AND 37
If you are between weeks 34 and 37 when the source breaks, your provider will probably suggest that you are being induced by labor. It is safer for the baby to be born a few weeks earlier than for you to risk getting an infection.
BEFORE THE 34 WEEKS
If you break source before week 34, the situation is more serious. If there are no signs of infection, the provider may try to delay labor by putting it to rest in bed. Steroids are given to help the baby’s lungs grow quickly. The baby will be better if his lungs have more time to grow before birth.
You will also receive antibiotics to help prevent infections. You and your baby will be monitored very closely at the hospital. Your provider can do tests to check the baby’s lungs. When the lungs of the baby have grown enough, your provider will induce labor.
What happens if I have to give birth to my baby before (prematurely)?
If you break the source early, your provider will tell you what is the safest thing to do. Preterm birth carries some risks, but the hospital where you give birth will send your baby to the intensive care unit for premature babies (a special unit for babies born before term). If there is not a premature unit where you give birth, you and your baby will be transferred to a hospital that has one.
#2 Programmable Read-Only Memory
The programmable read-only memory or PROM is a digital memory where the value of each bit depends on the state of a fuse (or anti-fuse ), which can be burned once.
For this reason, the memory can be programmed (the data can be written) only once through a special device, a PROM programmer. These memories are used to record permanent data in smaller quantities than ROMs, or when data must change in many or all cases.
Small Proms have been used as function generators, usually in conjunction with a multiplexer. Sometimes they preferred ROM because they are bipolar, habitually Scottish, achieving higher speeds.
The original PROMs are no longer used. PROMs have been superseded by EPROMs. They are similar to the functionality of the PROMs similar OTP (one-time programmable) ROM modules that use EPROM technology, but for cost, reasons have no UV-clear window.And thus just like PROMs only once writable and no longer – or only by X-rays – are erasable.
The difference from the PROM to the mask ROM is that the latter already gets its memory content during manufacture, which is no longer changeable. While the PROM is (once) programmable. In the state of delivery, all memory cells of a PROM contain a logic 1.
Memory cells which are to output a 0 signal later are programmed by evaporating metal compounds at the crossing points of the lattice-like arranged lines by deliberately applying a higher voltage (programming voltage).
A common PROM encounters all the bits in value 1 as the default value of the factories.The burning of each fuse changes the value of the corresponding bit to 0. The programming is done by applying pulses of high voltages that are not found during normal operations (12 to 21 volts ). The term read-only refers to the fact that, unlike other memories, the data can not be changed (at least by the end-user).
The PROM memory was invented in 1956 by Wen Tsing Chow, working for the Weapon Division of the American Bosch Arma Corporation in Garden City, New York. The invention was conceived at the request of the United States Air Force for a more secure and flexible way to store constants targets digital computer MBI Atlas E /F.
The associated patent and technology were kept secret for several years while the E / F Atlas was the main missile in the United States. The term burn, referring to the process of recording a PROM, is also found in the original patent.
Because as part of the original implementation the internal diodes had to be burned literally with an excess current to produce the discontinuity of the circuit. The first programming machines of PROMs were also developed by engineers from the Arma Division under the direction of Mr. Chow.And were located the Weapon Laboratory of Garden City and in the headquarters of the Air Force Strategic Air Command.
#3 Patient-Reported Outcome Measure
Measurements of actual clinical efficacy often reflect outcomes that are important to patients, such as symptoms, morbidity, or mortality.
To this end, there has been an increase in interest in obtaining results perceived by patients (PROM, for its acronym in English).They are based on the patient’s perception of the disease and its treatment (an adaptation of the definition of the Agency European Medicines Agency [EMA]). The measurements of the results perceived by the patients are the tools used to collect data and measure the PROM.
Why are the results perceived by patients important?
The results perceived by the patients are important because they allow knowing the patient’s point of view about a disease or a treatment, which could not be captured by a clinical measurement. But that can be so important for the patient (and their compliance with the treatment) as the clinical measurement.
Unlike the usual clinical results, the PROMs provide unique information on how treatment can affect a patient. People with exactly the same state of health, diagnosis or disease may have different perceptions of how they feel.Their functional capacity and ability to cope with limitations, disability and other factors that may alter the perception of their level of satisfaction with the lifetime.
The measurements of the PROs are important since they can give rise to a medical discipline more focused on the real benefits achievable for the patients. The possibility of measuring well-being, as a result, is especially important in clinical cases. In which the main objective of treatment is the well-being of the patient rather than the prolongation of life or the reduction of events associated with the disease.
What results are important? How can they be measured?
The PROMs must be carefully defined in order to gather important information for patients. In addition, this information must be measured accurately and, as far as possible, with a system that allows it to be compared with other measurements.
A poorly-developed definition of the concepts will result in the measurement of results that are not important to patients (although measurement is accurate). And the use of poor measurement methods will allow identifying an important outcome for patients, but difficult to interpret.
This means that the way in which a question is posed is very important. Imprecise questions provide inaccurate information that is not useful.
In the case of PROs, the object of measurement is a concept. Once the concept has been defined, questions can be asked to patients related to this concept. These questions are known as items. The items are proposed to understand the variations of the concept.
In some cases, caregivers or doctors define the concept in relation to disease and a group of patients. However, the need for patients to contribute to identify and define concepts is increasingly recognized.
Results perceived by patients, evaluation of health technologies and participation of patients
Many health technology assessment (HTA) agencies rely on the synthesis of tests to make recommendations on access to new treatments. HTA processes are based largely on the quantitative analysis of clinical data and the experience of patients according to the measurements of the results perceived by patients (PROM).
Obviously, an important part of the participation of patients in the use of the PROM must take place during the phases of clinical development. However, once an application for marketing authorization has been submitted, this type of participation can be very complex.
#4 Passive Range Of Motion
Passive range of motion refers to when an examiner places the joint through a range of motion while the patient is relaxed. An example is the doctor moves the patient’s head without the help of the patient.
Passive ROM can occur around a joint if you are not using your muscles to move. Someone else, like your physiotherapist, moves your body manually while you relax. A machine can also be used to provide passive ROM.
For example, after knee replacement surgery, you may not be able to use your musclesvoluntarily to move the knee. Your physiotherapist can bend and stretch your knee for you, moving your leg passively. Sometimes, a device called continuous passive motion (CPM) is used to provide passive ROM.
Passive ROM is more commonly used during the initial healing phase after surgery or injury. If paralysis prevents your body from moving normally, passive ROM can also be used to prevent contractures or pressure ulcers on the skin.
Importance of passive range of motion
The range of passive examination movement will alert the examiner if there is very little movement, called hypo-mobility, or too much movement, called hyper-mobility or laxity.
The examiner takes into account whether any of hypo or hypermobility are present and whether or not they are painful. Differences in the passive and active range of movement can be caused by muscles, damaged ligaments or short and tight muscles and ligaments.
What is normal?
Passive range of motion is usually greater than active. Each movement is compared to the same movement on the other side according to Orthopedic Physical Assessment. The examiner is evaluating the movement, as well as the final sensation, which is what the set feels like in the extreme ranges of movement. Normal end feel is different depending on the structure and can be soft – the soft tissue approach – muscle stretch, ligament stretch, capsular stretch – – firm or hard – bone to bone.
#5 Peer Review in Open Media
Peer Review in Open Media(PROM) describes different versions of peer review to assess scientific papers refer to operations where the review process open in contrast to the traditional peer review to insight or to participate becomes.
Open peer review procedures have been developing since the early 21st century in response to weaknesses in closed systems. In the context of the open access movement, and through new Internet opportunities.
For the open peer review so far no uniform standard has prevailed. Possible properties include:
- The author of a submitted entry is known to peers.
- The assessing peers will be published together with the paper after completing the procedure.
- The comments of the peers will be published together with the article.
- Submissions will be published as a preprint immediately.
- The appraisal will take place openly visible.
- The author can respond to peer comments.
- Public comments on submitted contributions may be made (anonymously or by name, by all selected readers).
- Contributions can be edited and corrected in a wiki.
The journal for media linguistics uses an open peer review process for scientific quality assurance. The aim is to increase the quality of the submissions and opinions and to make assessment procedures more transparent and comprehensible. Please actively support this process in the sense of an independent, open and interactive science culture and participate in the discussions.
The submissions will be viewable and commentable as discussion papers as well as the reports at dp.jfml.org. The Open Peer Review is not anonymous: The names of the authors are displayed and also ask the reviewers to give their name.
In addition to the quality control by the reviewers, the process also allows the wider scientific community to participate constructively in the open-peer review with comments. The authors are encouraged to respond to any comments or include comments in the review of the article. After completion of the open-peer review process, discussion papers and reports remain permanently accessible.
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- If in doubt, the editors will add a member of the Editorial Board to the Entrance Review (E).
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