Full Form of DSP
#1 Full form of DSP = Digital Signal Processing
Digital signal processors (DSPs) capture realistic signals, such as voice, audio, video, temperature, pressure or position that have been digitized, and then process them mathematically. A DSP is designed to perform very quick mathematical functions, such as adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing.
The signal is defined as physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent variable. A system is a physical entity that performs an operation on a signal. The system is characterized by the type of operation performed on the signal. These operations are called signal processing.
The signals must be processed so that the information they contain can be viewed, analyzed or converted to another type of signal that may be useful. In practice, analog products detect and manipulate signals such as sound, light, temperature or pressure.
The converters, like an analog to digital converter, take the real signal and convert it to the digital format of ones and zeros. From here, the DSP handles the acquisition of digitized information and its processing. Subsequently, the digitized information is fed back to its use in the real world. This is done in two ways, either digitally or in analog format, using a digital-to-analog converter. All this happens at very high speeds.
To illustrate this concept, the following diagram shows how a DSP is used in an MP3 audio player. During the recording phase, analog audio is transmitted through a receiver or other source. This analog signal is then converted into a digital signal by an analog-to-digital converter and forwarded to the DSP.
The DSP performs MP3 encoding and stores the file in memory. During the playback phase, the file is actually deleted from the memory, and after it is decoded by the DSP and then converted back into an analog signal through the digital-to-analog converter so that it can be broadcast through the speaker system . In a more complex example of DSP, the DSP would perform other functions such as volume control, equalization, and user interface.
The information from a DSP can be used by a computer to control things like security, telephone, home theater systems and video compression. The signals can be compressed so that they can be transferred quickly and more efficiently from one place to another (for example, telephone conferences can transmit voice and video over telephone lines).
The signals can also be improved or manipulated to improve their quality or provide information that humans do not perceive (eg, cancellation of echo for cell phones or computerized medical images). Although real signals can be processed in their analog form, the digital processing of the signals offers the advantages of high speed and precision.
A programmable DSP can be used in a variety of applications. You can create your own software or use the software provided by ADI and its external suppliers to design a DSP solution for an application.
For more detailed information on the benefits of using DSP to process real-world signals, see Part 1 of the article in the analog dialogue titled: Why use DSP? Digital signal processing 101 – An introductory course in the design of DSP systems.
What’s Inside a DSP?
A DSP contains the following key components:
- Program memory: stores the programs used by the DSP to process data
- Data Store: It stores the information to be processed.
- Compute Engine: From the program memory and the data warehouse data, it executes mathematical processing and accesses the program.
- Input / Output: provides a series of functions to connect to the outside world
Why is the DSP important?
- Digital signal processing (DSP) refers to several techniques to improve the accuracy and reliability of digital communications. The theory behind DSP is quite complex. Basically, the DSP works by clarifying or standardizing the levels or states of a digital signal. The ADSP circuit can distinguish between man-made signals that are clean and a noise that is inherently chaotic.
- All communication circuits contain noise. This applies regardless of the type of information transmitted, either analogue or digital. Noise is the eternal curse of communications engineers constantly looking for new ways to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in communication systems. Traditional methods to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio include increasing the transmit power and increasing the sensitivity of the receiver. (In wireless systems, special antenna systems can also help.) Digital signal processing greatly improves the sensitivity of a receiving unit. The effect is more noticeable when noise competes with the desired signal. A good designed DSP circuit can sometimes seem like an electronic miracle. But there are some limits to what you can do. If the noise is so loud that all traces of the signal are erased, a DSP circuit cannot find any order in the chaos and no signal is received.
- If an incoming signal is an analog signal, for example. As a standard television channel, the signal is first converted by an analog to digital converter (ADC) to digital format. The resulted digital signal has two or more levels. Ideally, these levels are always predictable, voltages or precise currents. However, since the incoming signal contains noise, the levels are not always at the predetermined values. The DSP circuit adjusts the levels to have the correct values. This virtually eliminates the noise. The digital signal is converted back into an analog signal through a digital to analog converter (DAC).
- When a received signal is digital, eg. No computer, ADC and DAC data is required. The DSP acts directly on the incoming signal, eliminating imperfections related to noise and minimizing the number of errors per unit of time.
- Analogue to digital conversion is an electronic process in which a continuous (analog) signal is converted into a multilevel (digital) signal without changing its essential content.
- The input of an analog to digital converter (ADC) consists of a voltage that varies between a theoretically infinite number of values. Some examples are sine waves representing waveforms representing human speech and signals from a conventional television camera. In contrast, the output of the ADC has defined levels or states. The number of states in binary encoded digital signal is almost always a power of two, that is, 2, 4, 8, 16, etc. The simplest digital signals have either two states i.e. 1 or 0 and they are called binary. All integers can be represented in binary form as sequences of ones and zeros.
- Digital signals are more efficient than analog signals, mainly because digital pulses, well defined and ordered, make it easier to distinguish electronic circuits from noise that is chaotic. This is the main advantage of digital modes in communication. Computers “speak” and “think” in the form of digital binary data; While a microprocessor can analyze analog data, it must be converted to digital format for the computer to understand.
- A typical telephone modem uses an ADC to convert incoming audio from a twisted pair into signals that the computer can understand. In a digital signal processing system, an ADC is required when the signal input is analog.
ADC and DAC
- Digital to analog conversion is a process in which signals with few (usually two) levels or defined (digital) states are converted into signals with an infinite theoretical number of states (analog). A common example is the processing of computer data through a modem to audio frequency (AF) tones that can be transmitted over a twisted pair telephone line. The circuit performs this function is called a digital-to-analog converter (DAC).
- Basically, the conversion from digital to analog is the opposite of the conversion from analog to digital. In most cases, the digital signal output is identical to the digital signal input when an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is placed in a communication circuit after a DAC. In most cases where a DAC is placed after an ADC, the output of the analog signal is identical to the input of the analog signal.
- Binary digital impulses appear in themselves as long sequences of ones and zeros and have no obvious meaning for a human observer. However, when a DAC is used to decode binary digital signals, a significant output appears. This can be a voice, an image, a piece of music or a mechanical movement.
- Both DAC and ADC are important in some digital signal processing applications. The intelligibility or fidelity of an analog signal can often be improved by converting the analog input to digital form with an ADC, then erasing the digital signal and, finally, converting the digital pulses “cleaned” again in analog form with a DAC.
Benefits of the DSP
- A programmable digital system allows flexibility in the reconfiguration of digital signal processing operations when changing the program. Analog requires hardware redesign.
- The digital precision depends on the word length, the floating point Vs arithmetic, etc. The analog precision depends on the components.
- It can be stored on the hard drive.
- To perform precise mathematical operations on signals in analog form, it is usually very difficult, but these operations can be implemented routinely on a digital computer that uses software.
- Cheaper to implement.
- Multiple filters require several analog cards, while in many digital filters they use the same DSP processor.
Disadvantages of DSP
- If the analog signal changes very rapidly, it is difficult to convert the digital form (beyond the 100 kHz range).
- w = 1/2 sampling rate.
- Problems with the length of the finite word.
- If the signal is weak, we can not amplify it within a few tenths of a millivolt after it has been digitized.
- DSP hardware is more expensive than general purpose microprocessors and microcontrollers.
- A dedicated DSP can work better than a general-purpose DSP.
- Voice synthesis in music in which white noise (all frequency components of the same level) is filtered on a selective frequency basis to obtain only preferred audio signal.
- Voice compression and expansion for use in radio communications.
- Speech recognition.
- Signal analysis.
- Image processing: filtering, border effects, improvement.
- PCM for telephone communication.
- Communication of high-speed MODEM data by means of pulse modulation systems such as FSK, QAM, etc. MODEM transmits high speed (1200-19200 bits per second) through a limited band analog telephone line (3-4 kHz).
- Generation of waveforms.
Full form of DSP
#2 Full form of DSP = Deputy Superintendent of Police
DSP means Deputy Superintendent of the Police. It is a rank of a police officer in the police department. DSP is a state policeman representing state police forces. This officer’s insignia is a national emblem on a star on the shoulder strap.
DSP is the deputy police commissioner and could be promoted to the IPS after a few years of service under the state government’s rules. Regular investigations are being conducted to recruit police officers directly for this rank. Inspectors will also be promoted to this rank after the specified number of years of service.
How can one become a DSP?
The candidate who wishes to become a DIG must appear in the conduct of the state examination by the Public Service Commission of the State. Candidates passing this exam undergo a trial education before being published as a DSP.
Requirements for the exam:
o The candidate must be a citizen of the respective country, here the listed criteria belong to the police of India, similar criteria are followed almost everywhere.
o You must have graduated from a recognized university or educational institution.
o The candidate must have reached the age of 21 and must not be older than 30 years. For SC / ST candidates, there is a 5-year easing in the upper age limit.
o The minimum size for male candidates is 168 cm and for female candidates 155 cm.
o The chest width required for men is at least 84 cm with a chest of at least 5 cm.
- Written Exam (Preliminary and Main Exam)
- Physical Efficiency Test (PET)
- Interview and Medical
Full form of DSP
#3 Full form of DSP = Defense Support Program (DSP)
The Defense Support Program (DSP) which is the program of the US Air Force. It operates the reconnaissance satellites that are the main component of the satellite early warning system currently used in the United States.
The air force space command operated the DSP satellites and launches of rockets or spacecraft and nuclear explosions using sensors that detect infrared emissions from these intense heat sources. During the desert storm, for example, the DSP tracked down deaths of Iraqi Scud missiles and warned civilians and armed forces in Israel and Saudi Arabia in time.
The satellites are in geosynchronous orbits and are equipped with infrared sensors, which are operated by a Schmidt wide-angle camera. The entire satellite rotates so that the matrix of the linear sensor moves six times per minute in the focal plane.
In general, the DSP satellites were launched in Titan IVB Boosters with higher inertial stages. However, at least one DSP satellite has been launched with the space shuttle. A well-known example is Atlantis in the STS-44 mission (November 24, 1991).
The last known DSP satellite (Flight 23) was launched in 2007 aboard the first operational flight of the Delta IV Heavy Rocket, since the Titan IV retired in 2005. The 23 satellites were built by the main contractor Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, previously TRW, in Redondo Beach, CA.
Based at Buckley Air Force Base in Colorado, the 460th space wing has units, especially the 2d Space Warning Squadron, which operates DSP satellites and sends warning information via communications links to early warning centers NORAD and USSTRATCOM in the Cheyenne Mountain Complex, Colorado. These centers send data immediately to various agencies and companies around the world.
The SBIRS wing of the Air Force Space Command at the Missile and Space Systems Center, Los Angeles AFB, California, is responsible for the development and acquisition of the satellites.
Full form of DSP
4th Full form of DSP = Direct Stock Purchase
With the direct purchase of shares (DSP), investors can buy shares directly from the companies instead of buying shares through a broker. Investing with DSPs is a cost-effective way to invest directly in a publicly traded company. These plans are usually agreed directly with the company or are managed through an external transfer agent.
The use of a direct stock purchase plan offers advantages over traditional and online discount brokers. First, these plans sometimes avoid costly commissions and fees charged by brokerage firms.
Another important advantage of using a DSP is the associated passive investment opportunities. Investors can usually set up an automated system that transfers money from a bank account and buys shares with the money. For as many reasons as the purchase of direct stocks, there are some disadvantages that investors should take into account.
This is how you buy the shares.
There are several ways to invest in the stock market. Online discount brokers are generally the most popular option to buy and sell shares, according to convenience and relatively low fees and fees. Then there are the traditional brokerage firms that charge higher rates but offer more advice on the stock market.
Several listed companies (such as Wal-Mart, Clorox, McDonald’s, etc.) offer investors the opportunity to buy shares of their own shares directly to them. This is known as a direct stock purchase plan and can be a profitable and efficient way to create a long-term portfolio.
What is a direct stock purchase plan?
A direct stock purchase plan (DSP) is a service offered by some companies and allows investors to buy shares directly from the company or from a third party. While not all listed companies offer a DSP, there are many first class actions that pay dividends that do. An investor who chooses to buy shares in one of these plans can eliminate the need to use a traditional or online broker.
Benefits of investing through a DSP.
The purchase and sale of shares through an online broker provides a convenient and profitable way to invest. Many online brokers offer low commissions (some below $ 5 per transaction), high-quality investment instruments and the ability to create a strong equity portfolio from a single account. While the purchase and sale of shares through an online stock broker offers many benefits, the purchase of direct stock should not be completely ignored.
Here are some benefits of investing through a direct stock purchase plan.
With the majority of direct purchases of shares, shareholders have the opportunity to make a recurring investment each month. The shares can be purchased automatically with funds that are regularly charged from your check or savings account. This saves investors who want to simplify their finances many problems to buy shares.
Automatic reinvestment of dividends.
An option offered by most business plans is to register to reinvest the dividend. This is similar to setting up a DSP through an online broker. The option to reinvest dividends allows an investor to accumulate additional shares without additional fees or commissions.
Averaging the cost of the dollar.
Have you ever bought an action at its peak and seen it go down after buying it? One way to avoid this phenomenon and avoid excessive payment of an action is to average the cost in dollars. Investors who decide to set up automatic investments from a DSP can calculate the average cost of an action in US dollars. In this way, you can build your business by paying a competitive stock price for many months.
No intermediation fees
While each company’s direct stock purchase plan is different, investors do not have to pay commissions to their online broker. A company’s plan may involve a single installation fee or an automatic investment rate, but usually a fraction of what a broker would charge. This is an excellent way to reduce the cost of building a solid capital portfolio.
Purchase Fractional Shares
The best thing about a DSP is that investors can buy fractions of shares. This makes it easier for the incipient investor with little capital to take a position in an action. Direct purchase allows the investor to buy partial shares, which facilitates the start of a position.
For example, if an share is listed at $ 100 per share and you invest $ 50 per month, it will acquire 0.5 shares.
Low initial investment
Since investors can buy fractional shares through a direct stock purchase plan, the initial investment needs are reduced. Each plan is different, but many companies require a single investment of $ 250 to $ 500. For those who want to establish automatic monthly investments, most plans require a monthly investment of $ 25 to $ 50 for a specific number of months. In both cases, it does not take much capital to invest through a DSP.
Disadvantages of investing through a plan of direct purchase of shares.
While buying shares directly from a transfer company or agency offers many benefits, investors must first consider some things. Here are 5 disadvantages for those who want to invest directly with a company instead of a broker.
Several companies charge a start-up fee when an investor opens a purchase plan account. These costs cover administrative costs and must be paid before the purchase of shares. Most plans require between 15 and 25 dollars. That’s not much, but it’s still an extra effort. If the investor plans to own shares for a long time, this cost is minimal compared to brokerage fees and commissions.
Automatic investment installments
One of the biggest drawbacks of buying shares of a DSP is the automatic investment commission charged by some companies. For example, an investor who makes a $ 25 automatic investment plan through Wal-Mart (WMT) will be charged a one-time installation fee of $ 20 and a recurring fee of $ 1.
This continuous rate of $ 1 It will be charged every time an automatic investment is made. That’s 4% of the total investment (higher than the yield of the current WMT dividend). It is important to keep in mind that not all companies charge the same rates, but this is something to keep in mind when buying shares.
Not for short-term dealers.
If you are a short-term trader, stay with your cheap discount agent. The direct purchase of shares adapts to the long-term investor, not to a day trader. While a DSP may be excellent for a long-term dividend investor, it may not be as suitable for those who invest or withdraw from various stocks in a short period of time.
High initial investment
One of the advantages of buying shares through a DSP is the low barrier to entry. Typically, most plans require an initial investment of $ 250 to $ 500 or a recurring monthly investment of $ 25 to $ 50. While most companies offer these low initial investment requirements, some make it difficult to open an investment. account.
By buying shares directly from a company or a third party, investors lose the ability to consolidate their holdings. Investors who prefer to keep their capital positions in the same account should consult an online broker. Since the direct purchase of shares opens outside a stockbroker, the investor loses the ability to keep his assets in a single account, which makes it difficult to monitor and manage investments.